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The Resource Walking : Connecting Sustainable Transport with Health

Walking : Connecting Sustainable Transport with Health

Walking : Connecting Sustainable Transport with Health
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Connecting Sustainable Transport with Health
This book features a multidisciplinary focus on walking as a mode in the context of transportation, urban planning and health. Breaking down the silos, this book presents a multidisciplinary focus bringing together research from transport, public health and planning to show linkages and the variation in experience around the world
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Transport and Sustainability
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Walking : Connecting Sustainable Transport with Health
Walking : Connecting Sustainable Transport with Health
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  • Front Cover -- Walking: Connecting Sustainable Transport with Health -- Copyright page -- Dedication -- Contents -- List of Contributors -- Chapter 1 Introduction -- References -- Section 1: Walking: Its Prevalence, Its Benefits and Its Variety -- Chapter 2 Measurement of Walking -- Preamble -- A Taxonomy of Walking -- Walking Assessment Methods, Issues in Operationalisation of Walking Measures and Measurement Properties -- Indirect Objective Methods for Assessing Walking Behaviour -- Direct Subjective Methods of Walking Assessment -- Diaries for Walking Assessment - The Use of Transportation and Time Use Diaries to Assess Walking Behaviour -- Observational Methods -- Combined Methods to Strengthen Walking Measurement -- Issues Related to Walking Measurement in Free-Living Conditions -- Emerging Research Areas in Physical Activity and Walking Measurement -- Conclusion: Unified Measures for Health Research, Surveillance and Interventions -- References -- Chapter 3 Understanding the Determinants of Walking as the Basis for Social Marketing Public Health Messaging -- Introduction -- Literature Context -- The Case Study of Sydney, NSW, Australia -- How Much Do Sydneysiders Walk per Day? -- Modelling Walking Time -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 4 The Health Benefits of Walking -- Introduction -- What Is Walking? -- The History of Research Related to the Health Benefits of Walking -- Physical Health Benefits of Walking -- Body Composition -- Cardiovascular Fitness -- Blood Pressure -- Vascular Function -- Blood Lipids -- Haemostatic, Inflammatory and Immune Function Markers -- Glucose Metabolism -- Musculoskeletal -- Mental Health Benefits of Walking -- Could Walking Be a Treatment for Depression and Other Mental Health Problems? -- Avoidance of Mortality and Morbidity -- All-cause Mortality and Walking -- Walking and Specific Diseases
  • What About the Risks of Walking? -- Future Research Directions -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Chapter 5 Economic Value of Walking -- Introduction -- Current Practices -- Walkability Economic Impacts -- Defining and Measuring Economic Impacts -- Impacts from Improved Walkability -- Improved Pedestrian Convenience, Safety, and Comfort -- Basic Mobility -- Property Value and Business Activity -- Facility Costs -- Benefits Arising from Increased Walking Activity -- User Enjoyment -- Improved Public Fitness and Health -- Community Cohesion and Increased Security -- Benefits Created by Automobile Travel Reductions -- Reduced Traffic and Parking Congestion -- Road and Parking Facility Cost Savings -- Consumer Savings and Affordability -- Reduced Chauffeuring Burdens -- Reduced Crash Risk -- Energy Conservation -- Pollution Reductions -- Additional Travel Time -- More Compact Communities -- Openspace Preservation -- Improved Accessibility -- Efficient Public Infrastructure and Services -- Economic Development -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 6 Walking to and from School -- Prelude -- Section I: Background of the Canadian STP Model -- Section II: Modal Shift from Vehicular Transport to Active Travel -- Section III: Anecdotal Feedback -- Factors Facilitating STP Effectiveness -- Factors Hindering STP Effectiveness -- Section IV: The Costs and Benefits of the Canadian STP Model -- Section V: Short Case Study of STP Implementation -- Section VI: Our School Travel Planning Tools, Resources and Canadian Partners -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 7 Dog Walking -- Introduction -- Physical Activity among Dog Owners and Non-Owners -- Dog Walking as a Mechanism for Improving Health -- Factors Associated with Dog Walking -- Relationship between the Built and Policy Environment and Dog Walking -- Functionality -- Aesthetics -- Safety
  • Destinations -- Conclusions -- Implications for Dog Walking Research -- Implications for Dog Walking Practice and Policy -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Section 2: Environments and Walking -- Chapter 8 The Built Environment and Walking -- Introduction -- Built Environments and Walking -- Connectivity to Built Environment, Land Use and Urban Form -- Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Evidence for Built Environments and Walking -- Transit/Public Transport Infrastructure -- Parks and Green Space -- Freiburg, Germany -- Economic Benefits -- Charleston -- Walking and Policies -- Countermeasures and Built Environment Interventions -- Cambridge, England -- Bogotá and Curitiba: Latin American Leaders in Urban Innovation -- Funding and Implementation -- Case Study: Walking Revitalized in New York City's West Side -- Emerging Trends -- Autonomous and Connected Vehicles: Promise or Peril? -- Vision Zero, Accessibility and Equity -- Regionalism, Privatisation, Zoning and Finance -- Promoting Walking Behaviour -- Conclusions -- Note -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Chapter 9 Public Transport Infrastructure and Walking: Gearing Towards the Multimodal City -- Walking at the Core of the Multimodal City -- Expanding the Reach of Walking at the Metropolitan Scale -- Adding Value to the Travel Experience -- The 'in-between-Mile' Approach -- The 'Carrefour de Mobilité' in Grenoble: A Walkability Cluster in the Making -- Habitability, the Next Disruptive Paradigm -- The Benefits of Putting Walking First: Setting Walking as the 'Default' Mode in the City -- References -- Chapter 10 Planning Walking Environments for People with Disabilities and Older Adults -- Background -- Defining Disability -- Redefining 'Walking' -- A Growing Population -- Environmental Modifications to Support Walking -- Natural Environment and Human-Made Changes
  • Services, Systems, and Policies -- Attitudes and Support and Relationships -- Additional Benefits of Environments that Support Walking -- Planning Walkable Environments -- Key Recommendations -- Walkability Audits on Accessibility -- U.S. Surgeon General's Call to Action to Promote Walking and Walkable Communities -- Including People with Disabilities in the Planning Process -- Planning for Maintenance -- References -- Chapter 11 Pedestrian Safety and Public Health -- Introduction and Conceptual Framework -- Risk Factors of Pedestrian Characteristics -- Children and Young Pedestrians -- Male Pedestrians and Gender Roles -- Older Adult Pedestrians -- Disabled Pedestrians -- Socio-Economic Status -- Intoxicated or Distracted Pedestrians -- Walking Environments and Risk Factors in the Built Environment -- Density, Regional Development and Urban Sprawl -- Pedestrian Infrastructure and Roadway Design -- Traffic Volumes, Traffic Speeds and Visibility -- Indirect Impacts of Safe Walking Environments on Health -- Cultural and Societal Shifts -- Conclusions -- Notes -- References -- Section 3: Public Policy for Walking -- Chapter 12 Walking Policy Steps - The Policy Development Process for the First State Walking Target in New South Wales, Australia -- Introduction -- The Research Evidence - Policy Steps -- Case Study -- Problem Stream -- Policy Stream -- Politics Stream -- Policy Window -- Discussion and Lessons Learnt -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 13 Developing Sustainable Walking Interventions: Integrating Behavioural, Ecological and Systems Science to Promote Population Health -- Introduction -- Conceptual Model of Sustainable Walking Interventions -- Individual-Level Interventions -- Technology Applications -- Adaptive Interventions -- More Powerful Consequences to Sustain Walking -- Community-Level Interventions -- Social Environment
  • Interventions Emphasising Exposure to New Social Networks -- Interventions Emphasising Behaviour Change in Existing Social Networks -- Built Environment -- Interventions Emphasising Exposure to New Built Environments -- Interventions Emphasising Changes to Existing Built Environments -- Policy and Multi-Level Interventions -- Effects of Walking-Related Policies -- Civic Engagement and Policymaking -- Selected Methodological Considerations -- Measurement -- Seasonality -- Baseline Scores -- Self-Selection and Measurement Reactivity -- Conclusions and Future Directions -- Note -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Chapter 14 Promotion of Recreational Walking: Case Study of the Ciclovía-Recreativa of Bogotá -- The Ciclovía-Recreativa of Bogotá -- History of the Ciclovía-Recreativa Programme -- The Ciclovía-Recreativa of Bogotá: Closed to Motor Vehicles and Open to Walkers -- The Ciclovía-Recreativa of Bogotá: A Scalable Programme -- Lessons Learned and Conclusions -- References -- Section 4: Case Studies -- Chapter 15 Vancouver and the Walker: The Evolution of the Walkable City -- Historical Beginnings -- The 20th Century - Growing up and a Link to Identity -- The Bartholomew Plan - Boulevards, Pleasure Drives and Transit -- Three 20th Century Decisions that Made Vancouver Walkable -- City of Vancouver City Hall - Innovation Incubator of Walkability -- CityPlan and the 1997 Transportation Plan -- The Urban Landscape Taskforce and the Development of Greenways -- The Greenways Plan -- Neighbourhood Greenways -- Tupper Neighbourhood Greenway - Case Study -- Innovation and Creative Walking Projects - Blooming Boulevards and Green Streets -- The Blooming Boulevard Demonstration Project - Stepping to Walkability -- Enhancing Walkability through Green Streets - Involving Volunteers in City Spaces -- Walkability and Vancouver - The Future
  • Synthesis of Walkability Approaches - Olympic Village
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1 online resource (442 pages)
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