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The Resource Traffic Safety and Human Behavior : Second Edition

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior : Second Edition

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior : Second Edition
Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
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Second Edition
This comprehensive 2nd edition covers the key issues that relate human behavior to traffic safety. In particular it covers the increasing roles that pedestrians and cyclists have in the traffic system; the role of infotainment in driver distraction; and the increasing role of driver assistance systems in changing the driver-vehicle interaction
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Traffic Safety and Human Behavior : Second Edition
Traffic Safety and Human Behavior : Second Edition
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  • Front Cover -- Traffic Safety and Human Behavior -- Copyright Page -- Dedication -- Contents -- Preface to the Second Edition -- References -- Part A: Background, Methods, and Models -- 1 Introduction and Background -- Background -- Definitions: Safety, accidents, and crashes -- Safety has come a long way in the past half century -- Scope and Measurement of Traffic Crashes and Injuries -- The scope of the problem in terms of property-damage, injury, and fatal crashes -- Defining severe injury: MAIS3{u200A}+ -- Measuring safety -- Motorization and Crashes - Smeed's Law -- The Reliability and Validity of Crash Data -- The Concern for Traffic Safety -- Organization of This Book, Additional Resources, and the Rationale for the New Edition -- Book organization -- Additional resources -- The rationale for a new edition -- References -- 2 Research Methods -- Key Concepts in Behavioral Research -- Variables of interest -- Independent and dependent variables -- Control variables -- Intervening variables: Mediation between the independent and dependent variables -- Confounding variables -- Moderating variables -- Validity and reliability -- Study Design -- Experimental versus observational studies -- Between subjects versus within subjects study designs, and treatment versus control conditions -- Statistical versus practical significance -- Research Methods: From Basic/Laboratory to Applied/Field -- A case in point: Reducing rear-end collisions -- Laboratory "Basic" research -- Digital Simulation Studies -- Driving Simulator Studies -- Validity of driving simulators -- On-the-Road Studies -- Experimental studies -- Field operational test (FOT) - A quasi-experimental method -- Observational/correlational/associational studies -- Naturalistic driving studies -- Meta-analysis - Quantitative synthesis of the results of multiple studies -- Concluding Remarks
  • References -- 3 Theories and Models of Driver Behavior -- Why We Need Driver Theories and Models -- The Context of Driving: Hierarchical Decision-Making -- Attention and Information Processing Models -- Attentional capacity and distribution of attention -- A driver information processing model -- Measuring mental task load -- Performance on a secondary task -- Physiological indicators of stress -- Subjective scales of mental load -- Endsley's situation awareness model and efficient information processing -- Rational Decision-Making Models -- Application of "bounded rationality" to driver behavior -- Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB) -- Fuller's task-capability interface (TCI) model and risk allostasis theory (RAT) of driving behavior -- Motivational Models -- Behavioral adaptation -- Risk homeostasis model of driver behavior -- Integrative Models: Information Processing in the Context of Motivational Factors -- Practical Implications of Theoretical Considerations -- References -- Part B: Driver Capacities and Individual Differences -- 4 Vision, Visual Attention, and Visual Search -- Our Visual System -- Driving-Related Visual Functions -- Visual acuity -- Definition of visual acuity -- Standards of visual acuity -- Visual acuity and driving performance -- Visual acuity and crash involvement -- Visual acuity under degraded conditions: Low illumination and glare -- Dynamic visual acuity -- Color vision -- Motion detection -- Contrast sensitivity -- Stereopsis and monocular vision -- Visual field -- Night vision and the implications of a dual vision system -- Distributed Visual Attention -- Useful field of view (UFOV) -- UFOV and driving performance of older drivers -- UFOV as a predictor of crash involvement -- Visual Search and Eye Movements -- The nature of eye movements -- Eye movements in driving -- Concluding Comments -- References
  • 5 Driver Information Processing: Attention, Perception, Reaction Time, and Comprehension -- Allocation of Attention: Selective and Divided Attention -- Information processing levels: Looking, attending, acting, and recalling -- Levels of processing -- Controlled (top-down) and automated (bottom-up) processes in driving -- Perception Reaction Time and Brake Reaction Time -- The relevance of brake reaction time to safety -- Reaction times in laboratory experiments, driving simulators, and on the road -- Expectancy and brake reaction time -- Age and gender differences in brake reaction time -- Driver reaction time in more complex situations -- Yellow light dilemma -- Reaction time to different stimuli -- Hazard perception: Situation awareness for lurking dangers -- Hazard perception and experience -- Judgments of Gaps, Clearances, and Headways -- Drivers' estimation of minimum safe headways and comfortable headways -- Can we learn to improve on-the-road headway estimation -- Drivers can and are inclined to improve their headways -- Comprehension of Information: Road Signs and In-Vehicle Displays -- Comprehension of road signs -- Road markings -- Finally, a note of caution -- In-vehicle symbol comprehension -- Concluding Comments -- References -- 6 Young and Novice Drivers -- The Magnitude of the Young Driver Problem -- Sources of the Problem: Inexperience and Immaturity -- The accumulation of driver experience -- Causes of Novice Drivers' Crashes -- Hazard perception -- Managing Experience: Driver Education, Graduated Licensing, and Training in Hazard Perception -- Driver Education and Driver Training -- Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL): Integrating Driver Education, Training, and Licensing -- Pre GDL programs -- Characteristics of the GDL -- Evaluations of the GDL -- Importance of the number of GDL components -- Importance of specific GDL components
  • Teen passengers compromise safety of young drivers -- Supervision has a positive but temporary benefit -- Long-term effects of GDL: The jury is still out -- Out-of-the-vehicle extended supervision: A potential enhancement of GDL -- Parents as role models: For better and for worse -- Program acceptance -- New Directions in Driver Education and Training -- Expanding the goals of driver education (GDE) -- Training in hazard perception -- Can there be too much training? -- Concluding Comments -- References -- 7 Older Drivers -- Problem Identification: Demographic Trends, Mobility, and Safety -- Demographic trends -- Mobility patterns -- Safety of older drivers -- Detailed examination of older drivers' crash involvement - The role of exposure -- Confounding and biasing factors in assessing older drivers' crash involvement -- Adjusting for frailty bias -- Adjusting for context bias -- Adjusting for low-mileage bias -- Crash Culpability and Age-Related Impairments -- Older drivers' impairments and crash causes -- Vision -- Cognitive impairments -- Medical conditions and diseases -- Driving style -- Solutions to Safety and Mobility of Older People -- Screening functionally deficient drivers -- Self-regulation and self-selection -- Driver education, structured self-assessment, and training -- Designing vehicles and in-vehicle technologies to assist the older drivers -- Navigation systems -- Hazard perception aids -- Night vision systems -- CarFit -- Environmental treatments -- Concluding Comments -- References -- Part C: Driving Style -- 8 Speed and Safety -- Variables Affecting Speed Choice -- Driver-related variables that affect speed choice -- Individual differences -- Motivational factors -- Speed choice and design speed -- Speed and Crashes -- Definitions: Speed, safety, and intervening variables -- Some theoretical issues - And a theoretical quagmire
  • Information processing approach -- Traffic conflict approach -- Risk-homeostasis motivational approach -- Speed and crash involvement -- Correlational studies of speed and crashes -- Causal analyses of crashes -- Quasi-experimental studies: Changes in crash experience as a function of changes in speed management -- Changing speed limits -- Speed enforcement -- Changes in road design -- Speed and crash severity -- Concluding remarks on speed and crashes -- Speeding Countermeasures -- Organizational/policy approaches -- Setting speed limits -- Administrative actions -- Behavioral approaches -- Education -- Enforcement -- Moving versus stationary enforcement -- Automated enforcement -- Section control -- How much enforcement? -- How does enforcement compare to speed calming through roadway design? -- Environmental approaches -- Perceptual countermeasures -- Public information and highway signs -- Public information campaigns -- Speed limit signs -- Graphic representational speed signs -- Variable message signs -- Speed feedback indicators -- Vehicles -- Combined approach: Speed management -- Concluding Comments -- References -- 9 Personality and Aggressive Driving -- Social Maladjustment and Driving Behavior -- Aggressive Driving -- Aggression, frustration, and aggressive driving -- Measures of aggressive driving and road rage -- Questionnaire-based measures of aggressive driving -- Behavioral observable measures of aggressive driving -- Frustrating situations - Catalysts for aggressive driving -- The value of time - An intervening variable in the effects of congestion on aggression -- Personality and Aggressive Driving -- Accident proneness - Is there such a thing? -- Anger, aggression, and aggressive driving -- Risk-taking and driving safety -- Sensation-seeking and driving -- Gender and gender identity: Masculinity and femininity
  • The Driving Environment: Annonymity of Others and Legitimacy of Their Behavior
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2nd ed.
1 online resource (1262 pages)
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    • Folsom LibraryBorrow it
      110 8th St, Troy, NY, 12180, US
      42.729766 -73.682577
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