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The Resource Trace Metals in a Tropical Mangrove Wetland : Chemical Speciation, Ecotoxicological Relevance and Remedial Measures

Trace Metals in a Tropical Mangrove Wetland : Chemical Speciation, Ecotoxicological Relevance and Remedial Measures

Label
Trace Metals in a Tropical Mangrove Wetland : Chemical Speciation, Ecotoxicological Relevance and Remedial Measures
Title
Trace Metals in a Tropical Mangrove Wetland
Title remainder
Chemical Speciation, Ecotoxicological Relevance and Remedial Measures
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Subject
Language
eng
Cataloging source
MiAaPQ
Literary form
non fiction
Nature of contents
dictionaries
Trace Metals in a Tropical Mangrove Wetland : Chemical Speciation, Ecotoxicological Relevance and Remedial Measures
Label
Trace Metals in a Tropical Mangrove Wetland : Chemical Speciation, Ecotoxicological Relevance and Remedial Measures
Link
http://libproxy.rpi.edu/login?url=https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/rpi/detail.action?docID=4942024
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Copyright
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Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Color
multicolored
Content category
text
Content type code
txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Contents
  • Foreword -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Contents -- About the Author -- Chapter 1: Introduction -- 1.1 Why Sediments Should Be Given Priority for Pollution Monitoring Program? -- 1.2 Sources of Trace Metal Contamination -- 1.2.1 Point and Nonpoint Sources of Pollution -- 1.3 Sediment Accumulation Rate -- 1.4 Definition and Significance for Metal Speciation -- 1.5 Impact of Multiple Stressors on Trace Metal Pollution -- 1.5.1 Impact of Anthropogenic Activities for Metal Enrichments -- 1.5.2 Interaction Between Climate Change and Dispersion of Pollutants -- 1.6 Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 2: Materials and Methods -- 2.1 Study Sites and Selection of Sampling Stations -- 2.2 Sampling Strategy and Preservation of Sediment Samples -- 2.3 Analytical Protocol -- 2.3.1 Instrumental Techniques in Environmental Chemical Analysis -- 2.3.1.1 Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) -- 2.3.1.2 Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (Flame-AAS) -- 2.3.1.3 Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS) -- 2.3.1.4 Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HG-AAS) -- 2.3.1.5 Cold-Vapor (Flameless) Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) -- 2.3.1.6 Gas Chromatography -- 2.3.1.7 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) -- 2.3.1.8 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) -- 2.3.1.9 Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) -- 2.3.1.10 Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) -- 2.3.1.11 Diffused Gradients in Thin Film Technique (DGT) -- 2.3.2 Quality Assurance/Quality Control -- 2.3.2.1 Certified Reference Material (CRMs) -- 2.4 Sediment Quality Assessment and Ecological Risk -- 2.4.1 Pollution Load Index (PLI) -- 2.4.2 Contamination Factor (CF) -- 2.4.3 Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) (Müller 1981) -- 2.4.4 Enrichment Factor (Sakan et al. 2009) -- 2.4.5 Potential Ecological Risk Index (Hakanson 1980)
  • 2.4.6 Modified Degree of Contamination (mCd) (Abrahim 2005) -- 2.4.7 Nemerow Pollution Load Index (Guang et al. 2010 -- Qingjie et al. 2008) -- 2.4.8 Mean ERM Quotient (m-ERM-Q) (Long et al. 1998) -- 2.4.9 Mean PEL Quotient (m-PEL-Q) -- 2.4.10 Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) -- 2.4.10.1 Effects Range-Low and Effects Range-Medium Values -- 2.5 Statistical Analyses -- 2.5.1 Correlation Matrix -- 2.5.2 Principal Component Analysis (PCA) -- 2.5.3 Dendrogram -- 2.5.4 Factor Analysis -- 2.5.5 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) -- 2.5.6 Box and Whisker Plot -- 2.6 Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 3: Trace Element Contamination in Surface Sediment of Sundarban Wetland -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 Materials and Methods -- 3.2.1 Study Site -- 3.2.2 Sediment Collection and Pretreatment -- 3.2.3 Physicochemical Analysis of Sediments -- 3.2.4 Sample Digestion and Analytical Protocol -- 3.2.5 Assessment of Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) -- 3.2.6 Assessment of Sediment Contamination and Ecological Risks -- 3.2.6.1 Enrichment Factor -- 3.2.6.2 Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) -- 3.2.6.3 Potential Ecological Risk Factor (RI) -- 3.2.7 Statistical Analysis -- 3.3 Results and Discussion -- 3.3.1 Sediment Geochemical Characteristics -- 3.3.2 Distribution of Trace Elements in Sediments -- 3.3.3 Assessment of Element Toxicity with Empirical SQGs -- 3.3.4 Assessment of Sediment Contamination -- 3.3.4.1 Enrichment Factor (EF) -- 3.3.4.2 Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) -- 3.3.4.3 Ecological Risk Assessment -- 3.3.5 Statistical Evaluation -- 3.3.5.1 Correlation Between the Elements -- 3.3.5.2 Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) -- 3.3.5.3 Principal Component Analysis (PCA) -- 3.4 Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 4: Total and Acid-Leachable Trace Metals in Surface Sediment of Sundarban Wetland and Adjacent Hooghly River Estuary -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 Materials and Methods
  • 4.2.1 Study Area and Sampling Sites -- 4.2.2 Collection and Preservation of Sediment Sample -- 4.2.3 Physicochemical Analysis of Sediments -- 4.2.4 Analytical Procedure -- 4.2.4.1 Total Trace Metals -- 4.2.4.2 Autoclave Digestion of Acid-Leachable Trace Metals (ALTMs) -- 4.2.5 Parameters of Sediment Quality Assessment -- 4.2.5.1 Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) -- 4.2.5.2 Contamination Factor (CF) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) -- 4.2.5.3 Enrichment Factor (EF) -- 4.2.6 Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) -- 4.2.7 Statistical Analysis -- 4.3 Results and Discussion -- 4.3.1 Sediment Geochemical Characteristics -- 4.3.2 Total and Acid-Leachable Trace Metal (ALTM) Concentration -- 4.3.3 Bioavailability of Trace Metal Concentration -- 4.3.4 Evaluation of Sediment Contamination -- 4.3.4.1 Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) -- 4.3.4.2 Contamination Factor (CF) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) -- 4.3.4.3 Enrichment Factor (EF) -- 4.3.5 Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) -- 4.3.6 Statistical Analyses -- 4.3.6.1 Factor Analysis -- 4.3.6.2 Correlation Coefficient -- 4.3.7 Comparison of TM Concentration with Other Estuarine Regions -- 4.4 Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 5: Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Macrozoobenthos of Sundarban Wetland -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.1.1 In Situ Biological Monitors -- 5.2 Methodology -- 5.2.1 Collection of Research Samples -- 5.2.2 Analytical Protocol -- 5.3 Results and Discussion -- 5.3.1 Sediment Geochemical Characteristics -- 5.3.2 Pattern of Trace Metal Accumulation in Macrozoobenthos -- 5.3.2.1 Trace Metals in Benthic Polychaetes -- 5.3.2.2 Trace Metals in Benthic Molluskan Shellfish -- 5.3.2.3 Factors Affecting Accumulation of Trace Metal in Biota -- 5.4 Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 6: Geochemical Speciation and Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in Sediments of Sundarban Wetland -- 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Significance of Sequential Extractions for Metal Speciation -- 6.2.1 Drawback of Sequential Extraction Technique -- 6.3 Materials and Methods -- 6.3.1 Sample Collection and Sediment Quality Analysis -- 6.3.2 Analytical Procedure -- 6.3.3 Statistical Analyses -- 6.4 Results and Discussion -- 6.4.1 Sediment Quality Characteristics -- 6.4.2 Metals Present in Total Concentration in Sediments -- 6.4.3 Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) -- 6.4.4 Comparison with Sediment Quality Guidelines -- 6.4.5 Speciation Patterns of Metals/Metalloids -- 6.4.6 Statistical Analyses and Interpretations -- 6.5 Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 7: Organotin Compounds in Surface Sediments of Sundarban Wetland and Adjacent Coastal Regions -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.2 Methodology -- 7.2.1 Study Area and Sampling Design -- 7.2.2 Analytical Protocol -- 7.2.3 Statistical Analysis -- 7.3 Results and Discussion -- 7.3.1 Sediment Geochemistry -- 7.3.2 Levels of Butyltin Contamination -- 7.3.3 Ecotoxicological Concerns -- 7.3.4 Alternate Booster Biocides for TBT -- 7.4 Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 8: Arsenic Speciation in Sediments and Representative Biota of Sundarban Wetland -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 Experimental Design -- 8.2.1 Sampling Sites -- 8.2.2 Polychaete and Sediment Collection -- 8.2.3 Reagents and Standards -- 8.2.4 Total Digestion and Extraction of Sediments -- 8.2.5 Total Digestion and Extraction of Polychaetes -- 8.3 Instrumentation -- 8.3.1 Total Arsenic Analysis -- 8.4 Results and Discussion -- 8.4.1 Sediment Geochemistry -- 8.4.2 Arsenic in Sediments -- 8.4.3 Arsenic in Polychaetes -- 8.4.4 Arsenic in Shellfish and Finfish -- 8.5 Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 9: Phytoremediation of Trace Metals by Mangrove Plants of Sundarban Wetland -- 9.1 Introduction -- 9.2 Techniques of Phytoremediation -- 9.2.1 Phytoextraction -- 9.2.2 Rhizofiltration
  • 9.2.3 Phytovolatilization -- 9.2.4 Phytostabilization -- 9.2.5 Phytodegradation -- 9.2.6 Rhizodegradation/Phytostimulation -- 9.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Phytoremediation -- 9.3.1 Advantages -- 9.3.2 Disadvantages -- 9.4 Important Criteria for Trace Metal Accumulation in Plants -- 9.5 Material and Methods -- 9.5.1 Description of the Study Sites -- 9.5.2 Sample Collection and Preservation -- 9.5.3 Analyses of Trace Metals in Sediments and Plants -- 9.5.4 Analysis by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) -- 9.5.5 Statistical Analyses -- 9.6 Results and Discussion -- 9.6.1 Sediment Geochemistry -- 9.6.2 Assessment of Sediment Quality Values -- 9.6.2.1 Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) -- 9.6.2.2 Enrichment Factor (EF) -- 9.6.3 Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) -- 9.6.4 Trace Metal Content in Mangrove Plants -- 9.6.5 Quantification of Phytoextraction Efficiency -- 9.6.6 Statistical Analyses -- 9.6.7 Assessment of Sediment Trace Metal Pollution -- 9.6.8 Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) -- 9.7 Conclusion -- References
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