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The Resource The Century of Science : The Global Triumph of the Research University

The Century of Science : The Global Triumph of the Research University

The Century of Science : The Global Triumph of the Research University
The Century of Science
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The Global Triumph of the Research University
In The Century of Science, a multicultural, international team of authors examine the global rise of scholarly research in science, technology, engineering, mathematics and health fields, providing insightful historical and sociological understandings of the ways that higher education has become an institution that shapes science and society
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International Perspectives on Education and Society
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The Century of Science : The Global Triumph of the Research University
The Century of Science : The Global Triumph of the Research University
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  • Front Cover -- The Century of Science: The Global Triumph of the Research University -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- List of Contributors -- Acknowledgments -- Preface -- Foreword -- References -- Introduction: The Worldwide Triumph of the Research University and Globalizing Science -- Setting the Global Stage -- Embedding SPHERE in Scientific Literature -- The Organization of Science Production: Research Universities at the Center -- Limited Empirical Studies on Science Production -- A Brief History of Bibliometric Analysis -- Comparison of Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) and Scopus (Elsevier) -- Methodology and Data -- Data Source, Sampling, and Coding -- How SPHERE Counted Collaboratively Written Research Articles -- Transformative Regime Change: The Dissolution or Unification of Countries -- Comparing Results -- Global Mega-Science -- Global Differentiation and Competition -- International Collaboration: Boundary-spanning Dynamics -- Connections between Science Production and Economic Prosperity -- Chapter Overview -- Discussion and Outlook -- Notes -- References -- Higher Education Expansion and the Growth of Science: The Institutionalization of Higher Education Systems in Seven Countri... -- Introduction -- Nation-State Building and the Institutionalization of Education -- The New Global Environment of Higher Education -- A New Role for the State? -- Expansion Trends in Cross-National Perspective -- "Elevator Effect" or Convergence in Higher Education Expansion? -- Conclusion -- Notes -- References -- The European Center of Science Productivity: Research Universities and Institutes in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom -- The Organization(s) of Scientific Productivity -- Europe: A Center of Global Scientific Productivity -- Institutionalizing Science: Research Universities and Institutes
  • France: Elite Professional Higher Education and Research between Hierarchy and Access Issues -- Germany's Dual Pillars of Strength: The Symbiosis of Research Universities and Extra-University Research Institutes -- United Kingdom: From Undergraduate Colleges to Leading International Research Universities -- Comparing Countries' Structures and Scientific Productivity: Findings and Outlook -- Notes -- References -- Science Production in the United States: An Unexpected Synergy between Mass Higher Education and the Super Research University -- The United States as the Birthplace of Mass Higher Education -- Mass Capacity Led to Mass Access to Institutions, Programs, and Degrees -- The Rise of the University Research Model -- Distinguishing between Undergraduate and Post-Baccalaureate Education -- Building Sustainable Research Universities Required Faculty and Finances -- Research Universities Were Early Organizers of Scientific Efforts -- Faculty Professional Autonomy and Scientific Research -- The Rise of the Super-Research University -- Science Production in the United States -- Three Patterns of Science Publications -- Increasing Coauthorship with University-Based Scientists -- Synergy between Super Research Universities and Mass Higher Education -- Conclusion and Implications -- Notes -- References -- Changing Science Production in Japan: The Expansion of Competitive Funds, Reduction of Block Grants, and Unsung Heroes -- Expansion of the Japanese Higher Education and University System -- Data and Methods -- Changes of Scientific Productivity in Japan and International Comparison -- Structural Changes in Higher Education and Scientific Productivity in Japan -- Types of Research Organization -- Types of National Universities -- Article Production by Individual National Universities -- Expansion of Competitive Funds since 2000
  • Reduction of Block Grants and Expansion of Competitive Funds -- Intensive Allocation to First-Tier National Universities to Become "World-class Universities" -- Findings and Implications -- Notes -- Acknowledgments -- References -- The Rise of Higher Education and Science in China -- Introduction -- Building a New Higher Education System and S&T Workforce (1949-1955) -- Restructuring China's Higher Education System -- Building a New S&T Workforce -- Learning from the Soviet Union -- A Messy Marriage between Politics and Science (1956-1965) -- The Honeymoon: "Marching toward Science" -- An Adversarial Stance: The Anti-Rightist Movement -- Political Dominance: The Great Leap Forward -- Adjusting S&T Policies -- The Cultural Revolution: A Lost Decade (1966-1976) -- Reform and Modernization (1977-2012) -- Putting the House Back in Order -- Developing Comprehensive S&T Policies -- Revitalizing the Nation through Science and Education -- Re-Investing in Universities: The "211" and "985" Projects -- Attracting Talent: "100 Talents" and "1,000 Talents" Schemes -- What Scientific Productivity Data Reveals about Chinese Investments in R&D -- Comparing the Performance of the Chinese Academy of Science and Other Higher Education Institutions -- Conclusions and Implications -- Notes -- References -- Science Production in Taiwanese Universities, 1980-2011 -- Introduction -- Historical Background -- 1945-1960: Transitioning from the German to the American Model -- 1960-1985: Higher Education Expands to Fill the Need for Skilled Labor -- 1985-1995: Transitioning from Elite to Mass Higher Education -- 1995-2005: A Transition from Mass Education to Universal Education -- 2005-Present: The Stratification of Higher Education -- The Reform of Higher Education and the Growth of Scientific Production -- From a Seniority-Based toward a Merit-Based Personnel System
  • Taiwanese Academic Drift: Technological Universities Emulating Research Universities -- Competition: Research Universities versus Non-Research Universities -- Collaboration within Higher Education -- The Transformation of Universities: Toward the Knowledge Conglomerate -- Conclusions -- Notes -- References -- The Growth of Higher Education and Science Production in South Korea since 1945 -- Introduction -- Establishment of the Higher Education System in Korea, 1945-1950s -- Establishing the Higher Education System -- The Rapid Growth of Private Institutions -- Expansion of the Higher Education and the Research Workforce (1960s-early 1990s) -- Continuous Expansion under Policies of Quality Control -- Science and Technology Policies -- Investment in Research: Toward the World-Class Research University (since Mid-1990s) -- University Reform Policy (Mid-1990s) -- Brain Korea 21 (1999-2005) -- Analysis of Korea's Science Productivity Data -- Growth in the Number of Researchers -- Research Production between 1980 and 2011 (Country Level) -- Science Production between 2007 and 2015 (Organizational Level) -- Conclusions -- Notes -- References -- "A Fever of Research": Scientific Journal Article Production and the Emergence of a National Research System in Qatar, 1980... -- Introduction -- Local, Regional, and Global Aspirations for a National Research System in Qatar -- Elements of a National Research System in Qatar -- Research-Oriented Universities -- Research Personnel -- National Research Institutes -- Corporate Research Capacity -- Research Funding -- Pace of Growth in Journal Article Production -- Productivity by Research Organization Sector in Qatar -- Top Producers -- Domestic versus International Collaboration -- Summary of Findings and Future Dilemmas -- Notes -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Coding Scheme for Research Organizations
  • STEM+ Productivity, Development, and Wealth, 1900-2012 -- Introduction -- Literature Review -- Science Production across the World: A Descriptive Presentation -- Production Is Not Productivity -- What Correlates Better with Science Production and Productivity? -- How Does Inequality Matter? -- Conclusions and Comments -- Notes -- References -- About the Authors -- Index
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