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The Resource Reform and Development of Agriculture in China

Reform and Development of Agriculture in China

Reform and Development of Agriculture in China
Reform and Development of Agriculture in China
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Research Series on the Chinese Dream and China{u2019}s Development Path
Reform and Development of Agriculture in China
Reform and Development of Agriculture in China
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  • Series Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Contents -- 1 History of Chinese Agriculture Before Reform and Opening -- 1.1 Three Thousand Years of Agriculture in China -- 1.1.1 The Origins of Agriculture -- 1.1.2 The Development of Agriculture -- Farmland Improvements -- Improvements to Farming Techniques -- Farming Implement Improvements -- Compliance with Farming Seasons -- 1.1.3 Agricultural Achievements -- 1.1.4 Characteristics of Agriculture -- 1.2 The Last 300 Years of Agriculture in China -- 1.2.1 A Stage of Continued Slow Growth in Agriculture -- 1.2.2 Why Agriculture Did Not Cause Economic Decline in China -- China Still Possessed Comparative Advantages in Agriculture During This Period -- Limited Disparities in Chinese Agricultural Technology During This Period -- Positive Impacts of the Industrial Revolution on Agriculture Still Highly Limited During This Period -- 1.2.3 Reasons for China's Economic Decline -- Limitations on Division of Labor and Industries of Over-Small Scales of Operation -- Limitations on Industry Upgrading of Expansion of Arable Land -- Limitations of "Celestial Empire Thinking" on Changing the Status Quo -- 1.3 Agriculture in China for the 30 Years Prior to Reform and Opening -- 2 Agricultural Reforms -- 2.1 Reforms to Markets for Agricultural Products -- 2.1.1 Gradually Shrinking the Scope of the Agricultural State Monopoly -- 2.1.2 Gradually Reducing the Quantity of State Monopoly Purchases -- 2.1.3 Gradually Developing a Market for Agricultural Products -- 2.1.4 Expanding Channels for Circulation of Agricultural Products -- 2.2 Agricultural Factor Market Reforms -- 2.2.1 Reforms to Agricultural Input Markets -- 2.2.2 Reforms to Agricultural Labor Markets -- Policies Restricting Rural Laborers to the Countryside
  • Policies Allowing Rural Laborers to Leave the Countryside -- The Policy Allowing Migration of Whole Families -- 2.2.3 Reforms to Rural Capital Markets -- Progress of Reforms -- Standardizing Private Loans and Developing Non-profit Financing -- Rural Financial Policies Directed at Marketization -- Reforms to Formal Rural Financial Institutions -- Informal Financing in Rural China -- Scale of China's Rural Finance Market -- Overall Assessment of Reforms to China's Rural Finance System and Development Thereof -- 2.3 Reforms to the Agricultural Land System -- 2.3.1 Progress of Reforms to the Agricultural Land System -- Promoting Reforms to Allow Farmers the Right to Operate Contracted Land -- Issuing Policies to Uphold the Rights of Farmers to Contract and Operate Land -- Improving Laws to Safeguard Rural Citizens' Rights to Operate Contracted Land -- 2.3.2 Developing a Rural Land Market -- 2.3.3 Scale and Pricing of the Land Market -- 2.3.4 Establishing Land Management and Farmland Protection Systems -- 2.4 Reforms to the System and Mechanisms for Agricultural Operations -- 2.4.1 Reducing the Scope of Administrative Management, Establishing Norms for Administrative Management -- 2.4.2 Improving Laws and Regulations, Governing in Strict Accordance with the Law -- 2.4.3 Expanding the Scope of Economic Administration, Improving Economic Management Methods -- 2.5 The Experience of China's Rural Reforms -- 2.5.1 Enormous Potential for Rural Economic Growth -- 2.5.2 Market Guidance: An Important Factor in Rural Growth -- 2.5.3 Non-agricultural Enterprises to Become Mainstay of Rural Development -- 3 China's Agricultural Basic Operating System -- 3.1 Changes to China's Agricultural Basic Operating System
  • 3.2 Environmental Changes Facing Construction of the Basic Operating System -- 3.2.1 Sustenance Fields Less Important -- 3.2.2 Gradual Increases to Opportunity Costs of Agriculture -- 3.2.3 Using Land to Provide for Old Age Less Important -- 3.2.4 Differentiation in Production and Capital Functions of Agricultural Land -- 3.2.5 Differentiation Between Rural Citizens -- 3.2.6 Diversification of Organizational Market Entry Methods for Rural Citizens -- 3.3 The Development of New Agricultural Operators in China -- 3.3.1 Leading Farms -- 3.3.2 Specialized Households -- 3.3.3 Specialized Farmer Cooperatives -- 3.3.4 Agricultural Companies -- 3.4 The Thinking Behind Fostering Leading Rural Households -- 3.5 Summarizing Comments -- 4 The Development of Agriculture in China -- 4.1 China's Natural Agricultural Resources -- 4.1.1 Low Per Capita Quantities of Land -- 4.1.2 Big Regional Differences in Available Water -- 4.1.3 Discoordination in Water and Land Resources -- 4.2 Agricultural Inputs -- 4.2.1 Labor -- 4.2.2 Farmland -- The Reasons for Reconstructing LuC Area Statistics in China -- Conditions for Reconstructing Data for Area of LuC in China -- The Results of Reconstructing LuC Area Data -- 4.2.3 Water Resources -- 4.2.4 Capital Inputs -- Comprehensive Mechanization Rate -- Irrigation Rate -- Rate of Seed Commoditization -- Rate of Soil Fertilization Based on Testing -- Agricultural Plastic Sheeting -- Chemical Fertilizers -- 4.2.5 Adjustments to the Agricultural Structure -- 4.3 Growth of Agriculture -- 4.3.1 Material Productivity of Agriculture -- Primary Agricultural Products -- Per Capita Share of Primary Agricultural Products -- Production Concentration of Primary Agricultural Products -- 4.3.2 Value Productivity of Agriculture
  • Land Productivity -- Labor Productivity -- 4.3.3 Technological Productivity of Agriculture -- Increasing Contributions of Agricultural Total Factor Productivity -- Gains in Agricultural TFP Stem from Technological Advances -- Room for Gains in Technological Efficiency Greater Than Room for Gains in Scale Efficiency -- 4.4 Development in Other Agricultural Sectors -- 4.4.1 Forest Protection and Construction -- 4.4.2 Grassland Protection and Construction -- 4.4.3 Wetlands Protection and Construction -- 5 Transformations to Agriculture and Agricultural Policies in China -- 5.1 Changes to the Agricultural Operations Model -- 5.1.1 Transition from Collective to Household Operations -- 5.1.2 Transition from Scattered to Scale Operations -- Developing Household Farms via Land Transfers -- From Division of Labor in Production to Developing Specialized Households -- Developing Agricultural Companies Through Industry Upgrading -- 5.1.3 Transition from Coercive to Inductive Administration -- 5.2 Changes to the Agricultural Structure -- 5.2.1 Transition from Reliance on Rainwater to Irrigation -- 5.2.2 Transition from Planting-Based to Husbandry-Based Agriculture -- 5.2.3 Transition from Dispersed to Concentrated Husbandry -- 5.2.4 Transition from Wild Catching to Farming in Fisheries -- 5.2.5 Transition from Net Exports to Net Imports of Agricultural Products -- 5.3 Changes to Agricultural Policies -- 5.3.1 Transition from Concentrating Agricultural Surpluses to Supporting Agricultural Development -- 5.3.2 Transition from Comprehensive Support to Focus Support -- 5.3.3 Transition from Quantity Security to Quality Security -- 5.3.4 Transition from Expanding Production to Protecting the Environment -- Policies for the Protection of Natural Forests
  • Policies for Returning Farmland to Forests -- Policies for Returning Pastureland to Grassland -- The Policy for Returning Fields to Lakes -- 5.3.5 Transition from Economic Development to Social Development -- Free Compulsory Rural Education -- New Rural Cooperative Medicine -- Equality in Infrastructure Provision -- Minimum Living Standards Guarantee for Rural Residents -- Social and Pension Insurance for Rural Residents -- 6 Grain Production and Food Security in China -- 6.1 Grain Production -- 6.1.1 Changes to Grain Yields and Per Capita Grain Shares -- Grain Yields in China -- Changes to Seasonal Grain Yields -- Changes to Yields of Major Grain Crops -- Changes to Regional Grain Production -- Field Area and Grain Field Productivity -- 6.1.2 Per Capita Grain Yields in China -- 6.2 Analysis of Factors Affecting Grain Production -- 6.2.1 Technological Advances -- 6.2.2 Impact of Climate Change -- 6.2.3 Agricultural Policies -- 6.2.4 Reductions of Farmland -- 6.3 Changes and Trends to Grain Production Distribution -- 6.3.1 North Outstrips South in Grain Production -- 6.3.2 Grain Production Concentrating in Central Region -- 6.3.3 Expansion of Northeastern Superior Round-Grain Rice, Stable Advantages of Southern Rice -- 6.3.4 Wheat Production Concentrating in Huang and Huai River Basins -- 6.3.5 Corn Production Concentrating in Northeastern and Central Regions -- 6.3.6 Overall Shrinking of Soybean Production -- 6.4 China's Food Security Strategy -- 6.4.1 Enactment of the Prime Farmland Protection Policy -- 6.4.2 Strengthening Construction of Prime Farmland Infrastructure -- 6.4.3 Optimizing the Distribution of Grain Production -- 6.4.4 Promoting International Trade of Agricultural Products
  • Establishment of the Prime Farmland Protection System
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