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The Resource Race, Ethnicity and Law

Race, Ethnicity and Law

Race, Ethnicity and Law
Race, Ethnicity and Law
This new volume of Sociology of Crime, Deviance and Law addresses issues of race and ethnicity within the law and law-related phenomena
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Sociology of Crime, Law and Deviance
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Race, Ethnicity and Law
Race, Ethnicity and Law
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  • Front Cover -- Race, Ethnicity and Law -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- List of Contributors -- Introduction: The laws of race, ethnicity and law -- References -- Part I: Law and Black Lives -- Wrongful Convictions: The African American Experience -- Introduction -- Factors Associated with Wrongful Convictions -- The Study -- The Wrongfully Convicted African American Men Sample -- The Wrongfully Convicted African American Women Sample -- Discussion and Implications -- Wrongly Convicted African American Men -- Wrongly Convicted African American Women -- Conclusion -- References -- Apartheid Justice: Gang Injunctions and the New Black Codes -- Introduction -- Gang Injunctions and Apartheid Justice -- Gang Injunctions as the New Black Codes -- Life in a Cage: A Case Study -- Conclusion: The Rebirth of Apartheid Justice -- Notes -- References -- Understanding the Historical Influences on Contemporary Assessment and Counseling Issues of African American Offenders -- Introduction -- The Foundation of African American Oppression -- The Institutionalization of Slavery -- Justifying Slavery -- Conditions of Slavery -- Maintaining the Social Order of Slavery through Mental Diagnoses -- Spirituality as a Slaves' Coping Method -- The Conditions of Emancipation -- Assessing African American Offenders -- Power of Beliefs -- Vacant Esteem -- Ever Present Anger -- Counseling Interactions with African American Offenders -- Correctional Assessment Instruments -- Misdiagnosis of Racial Minorities -- Conclusion -- References -- When Did Crime Pay, and for Whom? The Metamorphosis of an Academic's Odyssey -- Introduction -- Framework: The Conceptual Challenges -- The Personal Journey -- The Escape -- The Transformation -- The Model -- The Research Model - The Heuristics Approach -- Seven Major Themes/Philosophy in Sacred Space Program -- Conclusion -- References
  • Forty Acres and a Lawsuit: Legal Claims for Reparations -- Introduction -- Reparations Lawsuits -- Lawsuits against Government Defendants -- Lawsuits against Private Companies -- Lawsuits from Mass Harms under Jim Crow -- Types of Legal Claims -- Reparations Legislation -- Official Apologies -- The Reparations Dilemma and the Limits of Law -- Problems with Denying Restitution -- Problems with Granting Restitution -- Conclusion -- References -- Major Cases and Proposed Legislation -- Part II: Disparities in Sentencing and Punishment -- Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Assessments of Race/Ethnicity Disparities in Federal Sentencing -- Introduction -- Theories of Federal Sentence Severity -- Conflict Theory -- Uncertainty Avoidance/Causal Attribution -- Focal Concerns Theory -- Legal-Bureaucratic Model -- Empirical Findings of Race/Ethnicity Disparity in Federal Sentencing -- Pre-Federal Sentencing Guidelines Era -- Federal Sentencing Guidelines Era -- Conclusion -- References -- Statute -- Examining Sentencing Disparity in Virginia: The Impact of Race and Sex on Mitigating Departures for Drug Offenders -- Introduction -- Literature Review -- Sentencing Departures -- Decision-Making under Sentencing Guidelines: Theoretical Implications -- Virginia's Truth-in-Sentencing Guidelines -- Data and Methods -- Dependent and Independent Variables -- Analyses -- Discussion -- Conclusions -- References -- The New Jane Crow: Mass Incarceration and the Denied Maternity of Black Women -- Introduction -- Literature Review -- Slavery, Oppression, and Racism for the Black Woman -- The Negro Project (Eugenics) -- Black Women in the System of Mass Incarceration and the Collateral Consequence -- Collateral Consequences of Mass Incarceration on Black Mothers -- The Impact of Parental Separation on Black Youth -- Our Black Children in Foster Care -- Conclusion
  • References -- Hooked on Punishment: Symbolic Violence and the Drug War Inside U.S. Prisons -- Introduction -- Literature Review -- War on Drugs in the United States -- Drug Addicts and Punishment Inside Prison -- Women as "Inmate" -- Structural and Symbolic Violence in Mass Incarceration -- Research Questions and Hypotheses -- Hypotheses -- Data and Methods -- Limitations -- Measures -- Dependent Variable: Disciplinary Action -- Independent Variables: Drug Use -- Independent Variables: Criminality and Criminal Status -- Independent Variables: Behavior within Prisons -- Analysis -- Discussion and Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Prisons, Race Making, and the Changing American Racial Milieu -- Introduction -- Literature Review -- Racial Identity Construction -- Racialization of Crime -- Race in Prison -- Methodology -- Data Collection -- Sample -- Data Analysis -- Findings -- On Being Multiracial -- Race Making - Monoracial Categories -- Race Making - Racial Identity Construction -- Contested Racial Identity -- Conclusion -- References -- Part III: Systems and Mechanisms of Inequality -- Racialized Culpability: Victim Blaming and State Violence -- Introduction -- Victim Blaming and Violence against Women -- Victim-Blaming Attitudes -- Victim Blaming and the Criminal Justice System -- Mediated Victim Blaming -- Victim Blaming and Race -- Racialized Victim Blaming and State Violence -- Race and the Carceral State -- Immigration, Race, and Transnational State Violence -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgment -- References -- Latinos and the Crimmigration System -- Introduction -- Understanding the Crimmigration System -- Crimmigration as a Racialized System That Regulates Membership -- Mechanisms of Latino Crimmigration Control -- Bringing Crimmigration into Assimilation Debates -- Conclusion -- Notes -- References
  • Justice, Social Control, and Social Inequality: Framing the U.S. Juvenile Justice System's Racial and Ethnic Disparities -- Introduction -- Western Conceptions of Justice: Rights, Needs, Deserts, and Equality -- Justifications of Social Control: Deterrence, Incapacitation, Retribution, and Rehabilitation -- Social and Youth Inequality -- Youth and Criminal Justice -- Juvenile Justice -- Racial and Ethnic Disparities -- Policing -- Detention and Court Processing -- Justice, Social Control, Social Inequality, and System Disparities -- Conclusion -- References -- Drugs and Racial Constructions -- Introduction -- The Post-World War II Drug Epidemic -- Constructions of Drug Use in the 1950s -- Urban Ethnographic Research in the 1950s -- The Drug Revolution of the 1960s -- Drug Theory and Ethnography after the 1960s Drug Revolution -- The White Cocaine Epidemic of the Early 1980s -- The Black Cocaine Epidemic of the Late 1980s -- The Prescription Painkiller Epidemic of the 1990s -- Conclusions -- References -- The Intersection of Race/Ethnicity, Gender and the Treatment of Probation Violators in Juvenile Justice Proceedings -- Introduction -- Background -- The Intersectionality Perspective -- Race/Ethnicity and Gender Disparities in Court Outcomes for Probation Violators -- Race/Ethnicity -- Gender -- Race/Ethnicity and Gender -- Implications for the Present Study -- The Present Study -- Variables -- Analytical Procedures -- Results -- Associations among Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Probation Violation, and Type of Violation -- Multivariate Analyses Involving Main Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Probation Violation, and Type of Violation on Decision Making -- Multivariate Analyses Involving Two-Way Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Probation Violation, and Type of Violation on Decision Making
  • Multivariate Analyses Involving Three-Way Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Probation Violation, and Type of Violation on Decision Making -- Discussion -- Notes -- References -- Index
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