Coverart for item
The Resource Optimizing Treatment for Children in the Developing World

Optimizing Treatment for Children in the Developing World

Optimizing Treatment for Children in the Developing World
Optimizing Treatment for Children in the Developing World
This book is intended to communicate current best practice in pediatric clinical pharmacology and clinical pharmacy with special consideration of the prevailing circumstances and most pressing needs in developing countries. It also addresses measures that may be taken in countries with emerging economies through organizational and political adjustments to reduce unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality among children and pregnant women with treatable diseases
Cataloging source
Literary form
non fiction
Nature of contents
Optimizing Treatment for Children in the Developing World
Optimizing Treatment for Children in the Developing World
Related Contributor
Related Location
Related Agents
Related Authorities
Related Subjects
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
Carrier MARC source
Content category
Content type code
Content type MARC source
  • Preface -- References -- Contents -- Contributors -- Part I: Introduction and Context -- Chapter 1: Children Everywhere Deserve Evidence-Based and Accessible Treatment -- So How Much Do I Give? -- Investing in Clinical Trials in Children -- Regulatory Issues and Market Authorization of Paediatric Formulations -- Availability and Affordability of Medicines for Children -- Access to Reliable Information to Guide Medicines Use -- Monitoring and Evaluation of Use of Medicines in Children -- The Future -- References -- Chapter 2: Shifting Demographics and Clinical Pharmacy/Pharmacology Priorities -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 3: Access to Medicines - More Than Just Affordability -- Introduction -- Individuals, Households and Communities -- The Resources Building Block of Health Systems -- Health Financing, Selection and Human Resources -- Availability, Accessibility and Affordability -- Governance Issues -- Conclusions and Recommendations -- References -- Chapter 4: Challenges in Pediatric Oral Dosing -- Determining the Weight of a Child -- Age-Based Weight Estimation -- Length-Based Weight Estimation -- Habitus-Based Weight Estimation -- Dual Length- and Habitus-Based Weight Estimation -- Measuring and Delivering the Right Oral Dose to a Child -- Oral Liquid Formulations -- Oral Solid Formulations -- Novel Pediatric Formulations and Dosing Devices -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 5: Therapeutic Research in Low-Income Countries: Studying Trial Communities -- Introduction -- Trial Communities -- Keeping Children Healthy -- Risk, Power Disparities, and Gender -- Ethics and Benefits -- References -- Chapter 6: MicroResearch: Finding Sustainable Local Health Solutions in East Africa Through Small Local Research Studies -- Background -- Methods -- Results -- Discussion -- References
  • Chapter 7: Medications in Pregnancy: Can We Treat the Mother While Protecting the Unborn? -- Principles of Teratology -- Estimating the Risk of Drugs in Maternal Milk (See Also Chap. 4) -- Biological Therapies -- Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors -- Antidepressants (See Also Chap. 25) -- Teratogenicity -- References -- Chapter 8: Drugs and Breastfeeding: The Knowledge Gap -- Introduction -- Parameters of Drug Excretion into Breast Milk and Infant Exposure -- Milk-to-Maternal Plasma Concentration Ratio -- Relative Infant Dose -- Maternal Weight-Adjusted Infant Dose -- Infant Clearance of Drug -- Infant Exposure Levels as a Function of MP Ratio and Clearance -- Life-Threatening Accumulation of Drug in Infants -- Opioids -- Influences of Exposure in Utero -- Practical Approach -- LactMed -- Benefits of Breast Milk -- HIV, Anti-Retroviral Drugs and Breastfeeding -- References -- Chapter 9: Falsified and Substandard Medicines -- Definition of Falsified and Substandard Medicines -- Falsified Medicines -- Substandard Medicines -- Extent of the Problem -- Pharmaceutical Companies and Government Data -- Surveys of Drug Quality -- Types of Substandard Medicines -- Public Health Consequences -- Toxicity -- Lack of Efficacy -- Underlying Causes of Falsified and Substandard Medicines -- Falsified Medicines -- Substandard Medicines -- The Way Forward -- References -- Part II: Factors Enabling Improved Therapy -- Chapter 10: Regulatory Science for Paediatric Medicines in Low- and Middle-Income Countries -- Introduction -- Pharmacological Differences Between Adults and Children -- Paediatric Drug Development as a Regulatory Science Driver -- Pharmacovigilance Challenges -- Usefulness of HIC Activities for LMIC -- Beyond the Scope of Regulatory Science -- The Role of Regulators in Addressing Needs for Paediatric Medicines in LMIC -- Conclusions -- References
  • Chapter 11: Enabling Equitable Access to Essential Medicines -- Background -- Availability -- Affordability -- Quality Control -- Rational Prescribing -- New Technologies -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 12: Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Care -- Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Care -- Off-Label Use of Drugs in Children -- The Situation -- Implications for Clinical Practice -- Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs): Detection and Prevention -- Counseling of Parents, Caregivers, and Children -- Enteral Drug Administration -- IV Administration -- Seamless Care Between Care Settings -- Resources to Support the Pediatric Pharmacist -- Pediatric Formularies -- Pediatric Networks -- Professional Development Programs -- Summary -- References -- Chapter 13: Promoting Drug Development and Access: The Role of International Networks and Organizations -- Background -- Looking Back: A Brief Sketch of Public Health Achievements in Antiretroviral Drugs -- The DNDi Model -- The 'AIDS Response' -- Role of HIV Treatment Guidelines for Developing Countries -- Development of Adapted Formulation for Children Living With HIV -- Role of International Clinical Research Networks -- Conclusion -- References -- Part III: Research Challenges -- Chapter 14: Standards of Research for Clinical Trials in Low- and Middle-Income Countries -- Introduction -- More and Better Research in Children -- Quality Standards: The STaR Guidelines -- Trial Protocol Development and Reporting Standards -- Ethics of International Biomedical Research -- Specific Issues in the Ethical Conduct of Research in Developing Countries -- Responsiveness to Subject/Public Priorities -- Prior Agreements and Benefits of Research -- Informed Consent -- Standard of Care and the Use of Placebos -- The Way Ahead -- Developing Local Capacity -- Conclusions -- References
  • Chapter 15: Ethical Considerations in the Design of Pediatric Clinical Trials in Low- and Middle-Income Countries -- Vulnerability and Exploitation -- Equipoise and the Appropriate Standard of Care -- Case Study: Clinical Trial of Hib Vaccine in The Gambia -- Case Study: Clinical Trial of Surfaxin in Latin America -- Justice and "Fair" Benefits -- Concluding Remarks -- References -- Chapter 16: Micronutrient Deficiencies: Impact on Therapeutic Outcomes -- Vitamin A -- Zinc -- Iron -- Iodine -- Addressing Key Nutrient Deficiencies and the Resulting Impact on Therapeutic Outcomes -- Vitamin A -- Zinc -- Iron -- Multiple Nutrient Supplementation -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 17: Clinical Pharmacology and the Individualized Approach to Treatment -- Introduction -- Challenges in Drug Therapy for Children -- The Importance of Pharmacoepidemiology for Drug Therapy for Children in the Developing World -- Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety -- Drug Donation and Aid -- Individualized Therapy for Children in the Developing World -- Training in Drug Investigation in Children for the Developing World -- Clinical Pharmacology and a Brighter Future for the World's Children -- References -- Chapter 18: Neglected Diseases: Drug Development for Chagas Disease as an Example -- References -- Chapter 19: Health Economic Evaluation for Improving Child Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries -- Basic Principles of Economic Evaluation -- Challenges to Conducting Economic Evaluations in LMICs -- Contextual Challenges -- Methodological Challenges -- Present Status of Global Pediatric Health Economic Evaluation -- Economic Evaluations of Prevention Interventions -- Economic Evaluations of Treatment Interventions -- Discussion -- References
  • Chapter 20: Rational Use of Medicines (RUM) for Children in the Developing World: Current Status, Key Challenges and Potential Solutions -- Introduction -- Current Status of RUM in Children in the Developing World -- Irrational Use of Antibiotics -- Not Prescribing Effective Therapy (or Prescribing Ineffective or Suboptimal Therapy) -- Irrational Formulations -- Inappropriate Dosing -- Misuse or Overuse of Nonprescription Medicines and Micronutrients -- Additional Problems -- Unethical Pharmaceutical Industry Promotional Activities -- Consequences of Irrational Use of Medicines -- Key Challenges for Delivering RUM to Children in the Developing World -- Potential Solutions -- References -- Chapter 21: Perspective on the Role of the Pharmaceutical Industry -- Industry and Drug Development -- Industrial-Political Environment in Which Drug Development Occurs -- Challenges Particular to Pediatric Drugs -- Philanthropic and Other Activities -- The Way Forward -- References -- Part IV: Clinical Settings -- Chapter 22: Optimizing Malaria Treatment in the Community -- How Should Malaria Drug Treatment Be Delivered? -- To Whom Should Malaria Drug Treatment Be Targeted? -- How Should CHWs Be Trained to Use RDTs? -- What Are the Test Performance Characteristics of RDTs in the Hands of CHWs Compared to Formally Trained Health Workers? -- Can CHWs Safely Handle Test Materials Involving Human Blood? -- What Do Community Members Think of CHWs and RDTs? -- Are Stock-Out of RDTs and Medications a Problem in CCMm? -- Do CHWs Follow the RDT Result in Distributing Medicines? -- In Cases Outside Their Expertise, Do CHWs Refer Patients for Care Appropriately? -- What Impact Does RDT-Based CCMm Have on Patient Outcomes? -- Are RDTs Cost-Effective in the Community Setting? -- Beyond Malaria: What Happens When the RDT Is Negative? -- Conclusion -- References
  • Chapter 23: Critical Care for Children in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Issues Barriers and Opportunities
{'f': ''}
1 online resource (333 pages)
Form of item
Media category
Media MARC source
Media type code
unknown sound
Specific material designation

Library Locations

    • Folsom LibraryBorrow it
      110 8th St, Troy, NY, 12180, US
      42.729766 -73.682577
Processing Feedback ...