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The Resource Learning Relationships in the Classroom

Learning Relationships in the Classroom

Learning Relationships in the Classroom
Learning Relationships in the Classroom
This reader explores the nature of interactions between children and their teachers in the classroom. It emphasises the importance of such relationships for children's learning and for educational practice. Part 1 looks at different cultural conceptions of the teacher-learner relationship, and how this relates to schooling, cognitive development and the aquisition of knowledge. Part 2 takes a closer look at the role of language and dialogue in interactions between adults and children in classrooms. Part 3 describes research by developmental psychologists on peer interaction and collaborative learning, and discusses how it has advanced our understanding of how children learn from each other. Part 4 considers the implications of classroom-based collaborative learning initiatives and the potential for creating 'communities of enquiry' which change how we think about knowledge acquisition
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Learning Relationships in the Classroom
Learning Relationships in the Classroom
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  • Cover -- Half Title -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Table of Contents -- List of figures -- List of tables -- Introduction -- References -- Part I: Cultural psychology: a framework for understanding teaching and learning -- 1. L.S. Vygotsky and contemporary developmental psychology -- Social origins of individual mental functioning -- The role of a developmental method -- Vygotsky's uses of culture -- Problems and prospects -- Notes -- References -- 2. Cognitive development and formal schooling: the evidence from cross-cultural research -- Basic postulates of the sociohistorical school -- Four streams of history, four levels of development -- The phylogenetic level -- The historical level -- A new mode of representation -- The origins of "Western" formal schooling -- The ontogenetic level -- Schooling and the development of logical operations -- Information-processing skills -- Analysis of two-dimensional patterns -- Memory -- Classification and concept formation -- Interpretation: Are the effects specific or general? -- The microgenetic level -- Sources of general cognitive effects -- General implications -- References -- 3. Thinking with and through artifacts: the role of psychological tools and physical artifacts in human learning and cognition -- Cognition and human practices: a sociocultural approach -- Thinking and the use of tools -- Psychological tools and learning -- Artifacts and cognition -- Situating thinking in human practices -- Conclusions -- Notes -- References -- 4. Thinking in niches: sociocultural influences on cognitive development -- Cognitive development in sociocultural context -- The developmental niche -- Cognitive subsystems of the developmental niche -- Activity goals and values of the culture -- Cultural values and human activity -- Culture and goal-directed action
  • Historical means for satisfying cultural goals and values -- Maps and mathematical tools -- Historical tracks of a notational system -- Mathematical tools and the development of mathematical thinking -- Higher-level structures that instantiate goals and values in everyday practice -- Conventions for organizing and communicating knowledge -- Formal and informal social interaction practices -- Sociocultural influences beyond the dyad -- Conclusions -- References -- Part II: Teaching and learning: scaffolding and the zone of proximal development -- 5. A theory of teaching as assisted performance -- The development of cognition in society -- The zone of proximal development -- Paths through the zone -- The four stages of the ZPD -- Stage I: Where performance is assisted by more capable others -- Stage II: Where performance is assisted by the self -- Stage III: Where performance is developed, automatized, and "fossilized" -- Stage IV: Where de-automatization of performance leads to recursion back through the ZPD -- Responsive assistance -- Assisted performance: child, parent, and teacher -- References -- 6. How do teachers help children to learn? An analysis of teachers' interventions in computer-based activities -- Introduction -- Some central features of the neo-Vygotskian perspective -- Two key concepts in the neo-Vygotskian framework -- The zone of proximal development (ZPD) -- Method -- Teacher interventions -- Teaching and learning in progress -- Sequence I: Mapping a village -- Sequence 2: Buying carrots -- Sequence 3: Designing a concept keyboard -- Conclusions and discussion -- On the relevance and applicability of neo-Vygotskian concepts -- On the nature of computer-based activity in the classroom -- References -- 7. Vygotsky in classroom practice: moving from individual transmission to social transaction
  • Understanding classrooms as sociocultural systems -- Typical day: creating a literate community -- Thematic unit: native americans -- Discussion -- Practice informing theory -- Notes -- References -- 8. What is missing in the metaphor of scaffolding? -- The scaffolding metaphor -- Limitations of the metaphor -- Scaffolding as semiotic interaction -- Interpersonal dimensions of scaffolding -- Expanded metaphor -- Notes -- References -- Part III: Experimental studies of collaborative learning and peer interaction -- 9. Cognitive approaches to group work -- Egocentrism and socio-cognitive conflict -- Peer interaction and social marking -- Peer interaction and problem solving -- Co-construction and the role of talk -- Limitations of a purely cognitive approach -- References -- 10. Exploring Vygotskian perspectives in education: the cognitive value of peer interaction -- Peer collaboration -- Forman's study -- Discussion -- Conclusion -- Notes -- References -- 11. Peer interactive minds: developmental, theoretical, and methodological issues -- Peer interactive minds in childhood and adolescence -- Age-related differences in collaborative skills -- Age-related differences in the negotiation and renegotiation of roles -- Age-related differences in the negotiation and renegotiation of knowledge -- From potential to reality -- The interacting minds of friends -- Peer interactive minds across the life span -- Peer interactive minds: theoretical and methodological issues -- Notes -- References -- Part IV: Collaborative learning and peer interaction in the classroom -- 12. Sociocultural processes of creative planning in children's playcrafting -- Creating as a social cognitive activity -- An investigation of children's playcrafting -- The teacher's role in structuring the task -- Preparing the planning and writing task -- Structuring the collaborative process
  • Method for examining the course of events -- The course of planning -- Advance planning and planning during action -- Creativity in planning -- Planning during action: in character or improvisation -- Choosing advance planning and planning during action -- Social organization of creative planning -- Initial anchors for planning -- Means of co-ordinating efforts -- Division of tasks -- Shared decision making -- Summary -- References -- 13. Constructing scientific knowledge in the classroom -- The nature of scientific knowledge -- Learning science as an individual activity -- Learning science as the social construction of knowledge -- Informal science ideas and commonsense knowledge -- Learning science as involving individual and social processes -- Learning in the science classroom -- Light rays: negotiating "new conceptual tools" - new ontological entities -- Air pressure: scaffolding "a new way of explaining" - conflict between common sense and scientific views -- Summary and final comments -- References -- 14. Sharing cognition through collective comprehension activity -- Where shall we look for constructive group interaction? -- Horizontal in terms of the flow of information -- Three or more members -- Involvement of empirical confirmation -- Room for individual knowledge acquisition -- Sharing cognition in a group: an example -- Some experimental findings -- Motivational and cognitive effects of discussion -- Analyses of group protocols -- Learning histories of vocal and silent participants -- Data-constrained speculations -- How collective comprehension activity takes place -- How much knowledge is shared -- References -- 15. Learning and teaching mathematics in the information era -- A Vygotskian view of education in the information era -- The social ontogeny of mathematical development in early childhood
  • Human development in educational settings: history, activity and change -- Cultural historical tensions: schools and information technology -- Teachers' knowledge and information technology -- Conclusions -- References -- Index
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1 online resource (623 pages)
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