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The Resource Japan's Industrious Revolution : Economic and Social Transformations in the Early Modern Period

Japan's Industrious Revolution : Economic and Social Transformations in the Early Modern Period

Japan's Industrious Revolution : Economic and Social Transformations in the Early Modern Period
Japan's Industrious Revolution
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Economic and Social Transformations in the Early Modern Period
  • This book explains in fascinating detail how economic and social transformations in pre-1600 Japan led to an industrious revolution in the early modern period and how the fruits of the Industrious Revolution are what have supported Japan since the eighteenth century, improving living standards and leading to the formation of the work ethic of modern Japan. The arrival of the Sengoku Period in the sixteenth century saw the emergence and domination of government by the warrior class. It was Tokugawa Ieyasu who unified the realm. Yet this unity did not give rise to an autocratic state, as the shogun was recognized merely as a main pillar of the warrior class. Economically, however, from the fourteenth century, currency payments for shōen nengu (taxes paid to the proprietor) became standard, and currency circulation began, primarily in the central region. Under Tokugawa rule, organized domestic coinage of currency began, opening the way to establishing a national economic society. Also, agricultural land was surveyed through cadastral surveys known as kenchi. Land values were converted in terms of rice, so the expected rice yields for each village were assessed, and the lords used this as a benchmark for imposing taxes. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Japan experienced a "great transition," and conditions for peasants, agriculture, and farming villages underwent great changes. Inefficient traditional agriculture using peasants in a state of servitude was transformed into highly efficient small-sized farming operations which relied on family labor. As production yields increased due to labor-intensive agriculture, the profits obtained by the peasants improved their living standards. The stem-family system became the norm through which work ethics and even literacy were transmitted. This very change was the result of the "industrious
  • revolution" in Japan.           The book thus presents the framework of the facts of pre-industrial Japanese history and depicts pre-modern Japan from a macroscopic point of view, showing how the industrious revolution came about. It is certain to be of great interest to economists and historians alike
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Studies in Economic History Ser
Japan's Industrious Revolution : Economic and Social Transformations in the Early Modern Period
Japan's Industrious Revolution : Economic and Social Transformations in the Early Modern Period
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  • Preface to the English Edition -- Contents -- About the Author -- Glossary -- List of Figures and Tables -- Provinces in M id-Edo Period -- Chapter 1: Introduction: Viewpoints and Methods in the Economic History of Japan -- 1.1 Scope and Methods of Economic History -- 1.2 The Object of this Volume -- 1.3 The Modern Era as an Analytical Point of Departure -- 1.4 Typology of Industrialization -- 1.5 Agents and Conditions of Industrialization -- 1.6 Agents and the so-called Bourgeois Revolution -- 1.7 On Conditions -- 1.7.1 Conditions of Industrialization -- 1.7.2 Conditions where Economic Principles are Nonexistent -- 1.8 Economic Society -- 1.9 Paths to Industrialization -- 1.10 Two Paths to Development in Economic History -- 1.11 "Decentralized Society" -- 1.12 Historical Approach -- 1.13 Key Points and Summary -- 1.14 Periodization in Economic History -- 1.15 Summary of the Introduction -- Chapter 2: Before the Emergence of Economic Society -- 2.1 The Birth of a "Decentralized Society" -- 2.2 State Formation in Ancient Japan -- 2.3 Land System under the Ancient State -- 2.4 Structure of the Shōen -- 2.5 Categories of Shōen -- 2.6 The Progress of Shōen Formation -- 2.7 The Character of Shōen Ownership Rights -- 2.8 Formation of Warrior Governments -- 2.9 Kamakura Bakufu -- 2.10 Jitō -- 2.11 The Peasantry -- 2.12 The Economy of the Shōen System -- 2.13 Purpose of Production -- 2.14 The Absence of Economic Society and the Nature of Nengu -- 2.15 Conditions for the Survival of the Shōen Economy -- 2.16 The Muromachi Period -- 2.17 Summary of Chapter Two -- Chapter 3: The Delayed Formation Process of Economic Society -- 3.1 After the Collapse of the Ritsuryō-Shōen System -- 3.2 Formation of Economic Society in Japan -- 3.3 The Sufficiency of Currency -- 3.4 The Rise of Markets -- 3.5 Changes in Rural Villages and Agricultural Production
  • 3.6 Economic Incentives -- 3.7 Changes in Urban Areas -- 3.8 Sengoku Daimyō -- 3.9 Regional Disparities -- 3.10 International Environment -- 3.11 Summary of Chapter Three: A Great Transition -- Chapter 4: The Establishment of Economic Society and the Edo Period -- 4.1 The Bakuhan System -- 4.2 Initial Cadastral Surveys -- 4.3 The Kokudaka and Murauke Nengu Systems -- 4.4 Economic Structure -- 4.5 Economic Change during the Edo Period -- 4.6 Economic Spheres -- 4.7 The Currency System -- Chapter 5: Economic and Social Changes in the Edo Period -- 5.1 Direction of Technical Development and the Creation of Work Ethics -- 5.2 The Results of the rise of Intensive Agriculture -- 5.3 Population Increase in the Early Edo Period -- 5.4 Peasants and Production -- 5.5 The Rise of Landlordism -- 5.6 Peasant Migration -- 5.7 Peasant Life -- 5.8 Demography in the Latter Half of the Edo Period -- 5.9 Decline of the Lord's Economy -- 5.10 Solutions to the Financial Crisis -- 5.11 Shogunate Governmental Reforms -- 5.12 Social Anxiety -- Chapter 6: The Rise of Industriousness in Early Modern Japan -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 Industrious Revolution versus Industrial Revolution -- 6.3 From Livestock Power to Human Power: Changes in the Agricultural Production System in Tokugawa Japan -- 6.4 Change in the Number of Livestock -- 6.5 Changes in Agricultural Methods and Household Composition -- 6.6 Conclusion of this Chapter -- Chapter 7: Economic Development in Early Modern Japan -- 7.1 Assessing "Early Modern" in Economic History of Japan -- 7.2 Early Modern Economy and Society: Emergence of Economic Society -- 7.3 Population, Prices and Wages -- 7.3.1 Population -- 7.3.2 Prices and Wages -- 7.4 Economic Policies and Economic Models -- Chapter 8: Conclusion: Historical Reflections on Japan's Industrialization
  • 8.1 The Significance of the Edo Period for the Birth of Modern Japan -- 8.2 The Seigneurial System -- 8.3 Production Technology -- 8.4 Population Pressure -- 8.5 The Limitation of Market Growth -- 8.6 Obstacles to the Industrial Breakthrough -- 8.7 The Government -- 8.8 Summary -- References
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