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The Resource Essays on Research Methodology

Essays on Research Methodology

Label
Essays on Research Methodology
Title
Essays on Research Methodology
Creator
Subject
Language
eng
Summary
The book presents a collection of essays addressing a perceived need for persistent and logical thinking, critical reasoning, rigor and relevance on the part of researchers pursuing their doctorates. Accordingly, eminent experts have come together to consider these significant aspects of the research process, which result in different knowledge claims in different fields or subject areas. An attempt has been made to find a common denominator across diverse management disciplines, so that the broadest range of researchers can benefit from the book. The topics have been carefully chosen to cover problem formulation, contextualizing, soft & hard modeling, qualitative and quantitative analysis and ethical issues, in addition to the design of experiments and survey-based research. The distinguishing feature of this book is that it recognizes the diverse backgrounds of scholars from different interdisciplinary areas as well as their varying needs with regard to modeling, observations, measurements, aggregation, data analyses, etc. After all, researchers are expected to deepen our understanding, expand on existing information, introduce fresh insights, present new evidence and/or disprove accepted theories, hypotheses etc. More importantly, the book cautions against the over-reliance on software packages and mechanical interpretation of results based on the size, sign and significance of the coefficients obtained. Instead, the focus is on the underlying theories, hypotheses and relationships and on establishing new ones. In doing so, due care is taken to clearly enunciate what exactly constitutes a knowledge claim and what is methodology as distinct from methods, tools and techniques
Cataloging source
MiAaPQ
Literary form
non fiction
Nature of contents
dictionaries
Essays on Research Methodology
Label
Essays on Research Methodology
Link
http://libproxy.rpi.edu/login?url=https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/rpi/detail.action?docID=2094229
Publication
Copyright
Related Contributor
Related Location
Related Agents
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Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Color
multicolored
Content category
text
Content type code
txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Contents
  • Foreword -- References -- Contents -- Contributors -- About the Editor -- 1 Introduction -- 1.1 Backdrop -- 1.2 Interfaces with Peers/Colleagues -- 1.3 A Guided Tour of the Volume -- References -- 2 Knowledge Claims: Approaches and Perspectives -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 Nature of Knowledge Claims -- 2.3 Basis of Knowledge Claims -- 2.4 Types (Classification) of Knowledge Claims -- 2.5 Approaches (Methodologies) to Knowledge Claims -- 2.5.1 Positivism -- 2.5.2 Phenomenology -- 2.5.3 Mixed Approach -- References -- 3 Logical and Epistemological Norms in Scientific Theory Construction -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.1.1 Science: Scientific Method(s) and Logical and Epistemic Norms -- 3.1.2 Logical and Epistemic Norms in the Social Sciences -- 3.2 Logics of Induction and Deduction, Epistemology, and Goals of Science -- 3.2.1 Two Logics Defined: Aristotle's Definitions -- 3.2.2 Inductive Logic -- 3.2.3 Deductive Logic -- 3.3 Concrete Science: Pure Empiricism, (Phenomenal) Generalizations, and Prediction -- 3.3.1 A Case Study: The Babylonian Observational Astronomy and (Phenomenal) Generalizations -- 3.3.2 The Problems Faced by the Babylonian Observational Astronomers -- 3.3.3 Solution: An Example of (Phenomenal) Generalizations -- 3.4 Abstract Science: Rationalism and Deductivism - The Platonic-Pythagorean-Euclidean Tradition -- 3.4.1 Norm of Science as an Axiomatic System with Deductive Structure -- 3.4.2 Plato's Thesis of "Saving the Appearance" -- 3.5 Marriage of Concrete and Abstract Science -- 3.5.1 Alleged Incongruence Between Deduction and Induction: A Critical Examination -- 3.5.2 "Mixed Method" in Geometry -- 3.5.3 Close Relationship Between Deduction and Induction: Geometrical Generalization -- 3.5.4 The Condition Legitimizing Euclid's Passage from Particular to the Universal Generalization -- 3.6 "Mixed Method" in the Natural Sciences
  • 3.6.1 Aristotle's Notion of Science: Demonstrative Science -- 3.6.2 Congruence Between Deduction and Induction in Aristotle's Science -- 3.6.3 The Method of Hypothesis -- 3.7 Axiomatic Systemic Notion of Theory -- 3.7.1 Axiomatic Systemic Model in the Social Science -- 3.7.2 Construction of "Scientific" Sociological Theories: "Grand" and "Middle-Range" Theories -- 3.7.3 "Dust-Bowl Empiricism" or "Barefoot Empiricism" in the Social Sciences -- 3.7.4 Objections to the Empiricist Positivistic Approach -- 3.8 The Character of Knowledge of Social Phenomena -- 3.8.1 Karl Popper's "Situational Logic" -- 3.8.2 Grounded Contextualist Epistemology and Local Realism -- 3.8.3 Local Realism and Causal Generalizations: W. Salmon and N. Cartwright -- 3.8.4 Generalization in Social Sciences: H. Kincaid -- 3.8.5 Phenomenal Regularities and Causal Realism: D. Little -- 3.9 Two Case Studies -- 3.9.1 Amartya Sen -- 3.9.2 M.N. Srinivas -- 3.10 Conclusion -- Appendices -- Appendix 3.1: The Transcription of a Babylonian Ephemeris -- Appendix 3.2: Aristotle's Science of Motion Based on Inductive-Deductive Method -- Consequence of Aristotle's Law -- Appendix 3.3: Kinetic Theory of Gases -- Appendix 3.4: A Note on Reconceptualizing Induction, Induction and Natural Kinds -- Problem with Induction: "Hume's Problem" -- Reconceptualization of Induction: The Notion of "Natural Kinds" -- New Way of Looking as Inductive Generalization: An Essentialist Response to Hume -- Natural Kind and Generalization -- Natural Kind and Induction -- References -- 4 Problem Formulation -- 4.1 Objectives -- 4.2 Taxonomy of Problems -- 4.3 Secondary and Primary Problems -- 4.4 Problem Formulation in Academic Study -- 4.4.1 For this It Is Necessary to Classify a Research Idea/Ideas into Three Types -- 4.5 Problem Formulation for Types (b) and (c) -- 4.5.1 Who Owns the Problem?
  • 4.5.2 Variable Identification Method -- 4.5.2.1 Forward Formulation -- 4.5.2.2 Backward Formulation -- 4.5.2.3 Combined Backward/Forward Formulations -- 4.6 Clarification of Ẁhat' -- 4.7 Alternatives Available and Feasible -- 4.8 Relations -- 4.9 Representation of the Problem Reality -- 4.10 Benefits of Problem Formulation -- 4.11 A Few Case Examples -- 4.11.1 Case A -- 4.11.2 Case B -- 4.11.3 Case C -- References -- 5 Systems Approach and Soft Systems Methodology of Organization and Management Studies -- 5.1 Need and Importance of Systems Approach in Management and Social Research - Concepts, Theories and Ideas -- 5.1.1 Objectives -- 5.1.2 Needs and Benefits of Systems Approach -- 5.1.3 Concepts and Definitions -- 5.1.4 Some Basic Laws of Systems -- 5.2 Tools and Techniques for Systemic Research -- 5.2.1 Hard and Soft Systems -- 5.2.2 Steps in Soft Systems Methodology -- 5.2.3 Techniques of Soft Systems Methodology -- 5.2.3.1 The Pragmatic-Historical Approach -- 5.2.3.2 The Activity or Material Processing Approach -- 5.2.3.3 The Social Structure of "Human Systems" View -- 5.2.3.4 The Total Systems Planning Approach -- 5.2.4 Systems Map -- 5.2.4.1 Decision Sequence Diagram -- 5.2.5 Interaction Matrices -- 5.2.6 Sociograms -- 5.2.7 Some Higher-Level Graphical Technique Like SODA, Cognitive Mapping and Strategic Choice Approach -- 5.2.7.1 SODA: Strategic Option Development Analysis -- 5.2.7.2 Cognitive Mapping -- 5.2.7.3 Strategic Choice Approach -- 5.3 Case Examples -- 5.3.1 Case Studies -- 5.3.1.1 Case Study - 1 -- 5.3.1.2 Case Study - 2 -- 5.3.1.3 Case Study - 3 -- 5.4 Summary -- References -- 6 Qualitative Research and Its Application in Organizational Management and Social Research -- 6.1 Objectives -- 6.2 What Is Qualitative Research? Why Is It Needed?
  • 6.2.1 Distinctive Characteristics of Qualitative Research as Compared to Quantitative Research -- 6.2.2 Application Areas of Qualitative Research -- 6.3 Models and Languages of Qualitative Research -- 6.4 Methods, Concepts, and Theories of Qualitative Research -- 6.5 Historical Analysis and Pre-understanding -- 6.5.1 Biographical Analysis -- 6.5.2 Pre-understanding -- 6.6 Ethnographic Study and Qualitative Research -- 6.7 Steps and Processes of Qualitative Research Study Inclusive of Ethnographic Study -- 6.7.1 Substantial Features of Qualitative Research (Including Ethnographic Study) Are Given Below -- 6.8 Focus Group -- 6.9 Online Qualitative Research -- 6.9.1 Use of Computers in Qualitative Analysis -- 6.10 Case Study Research -- 6.10.1 Debate for and Against Case Study Research -- 6.10.2 Factors to Be Considered for Selection of Cases for Case Study Research -- 6.10.3 Skills and Approaches Needed for Case Study Research -- 6.10.4 Data Collection -- 6.10.5 Design of Case Study Research -- 6.10.6 Case Study Design Principles -- 6.11 Action Research -- 6.12 Triangulation -- 6.13 Evaluation of Quality of Qualitative Research -- 6.13.1 Quality Defined -- 6.13.2 Key Questions -- 6.13.3 Summary of Quality Evaluations -- 6.14 A Few Case Examples -- 6.14.1 Case "A" -- 6.14.2 Case "B" -- 6.14.3 Case "C" -- 6.14.4 Case "D" -- 6.15 Concluding Remarks -- References -- 7 On the Role and Significance of Contextualization in Economic Research -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.2 Yawning Gaps -- 7.3 Some Recent Trends and the Larger Perspectives -- 7.4 Revisiting Assumptions in the Changed Context -- 7.5 Spillovers Across Sectors -- 7.6 Conclusion -- References -- 8 On Using Experimental Designs -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 Steps in the Designing of an Experiment -- 8.2.1 Begin with a Hypothesis -- 8.2.2 Is a Hypothesis Ready for Testing?
  • 8.2.3 Where to Locate the Effect of the Cause in an Experiment? -- 8.2.4 Whom Do We Test? The Size of the Sample -- 8.3 A Survey of Experimental Designs -- 8.3.1 Designs Without a Control Group (One Set Designs) -- 8.3.2 Design with a Control -- 8.3.3 Solomon Four-Group Design -- 8.3.4 Experiments with Several Treatment Levels -- 8.3.5 Designs with Two or More Independent Variables and Treatments -- 8.3.6 Designs with Repeated Measures -- 8.3.7 Latin Square Design -- 8.4 Multivariate Designs: Experiments with Two or More Dependent Variables -- 8.4.1 Example of a 2=3 Factorial Design with Effects on Two Dependent Variables -- 8.5 Experimental Designs as a Bridge Between Conceptual and Statistical Validity -- 8.6 Threats to the Validity of Experiments -- 8.7 Concluding Remarks -- References -- 9 Questionnaire Design for Survey Research -- 9.1 Questionnaire Design -- 9.1.1 Introduction -- 9.2 Design of Instrument/Questionnaire -- 9.2.1 Framework -- 9.3 Steps Involved in Developing a Questionnaire -- 9.3.1 Operational Definitions -- 9.3.2 Questionnaire Items Based on Research Literature -- 9.3.3 Validation Process -- 9.4 Developing the First Form of the Questionnaire -- 9.4.1 Structural Elements of Questionnaire -- 9.5 Establishing Validity and Reliability -- 9.6 A Practical Approach in Designing Survey Questionnaire -- 9.6.1 Essay Writing Method -- 9.6.2 Preparing Statements/Items -- 9.6.3 Verification of Validity of Item Contents -- 9.6.4 Scaling Techniques -- 9.7 Case Example # 1: Questionnaire Design by Theory -- 9.7.1 Development of Organizational Health Index -- 9.7.2 Conceptualizing Variable Set -- 9.7.3 Initial Attempt -- 9.7.4 Preliminary Pool of Items -- 9.7.5 Nature of the Measurement Scale -- 9.7.6 First Tryout -- 9.7.7 Second Tryout -- 9.7.8 Final Selection of Items -- 9.7.9 Reliability of Organizational Health Index -- 9.7.10 Validity
  • 9.7.11 Selection of Raters
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{'f': 'http://opac.lib.rpi.edu/record=b4390718'}
Extent
1 online resource (244 pages)
Form of item
online
Isbn
9788132222149
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
c
Sound
unknown sound
Specific material designation
remote

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