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The Resource Eradicating Terrorism from the Middle East : Policy and Administrative Approaches

Eradicating Terrorism from the Middle East : Policy and Administrative Approaches

Eradicating Terrorism from the Middle East : Policy and Administrative Approaches
Eradicating Terrorism from the Middle East
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Policy and Administrative Approaches
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non fiction
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Public Administration, Governance and Globalization Ser.
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Eradicating Terrorism from the Middle East : Policy and Administrative Approaches
Eradicating Terrorism from the Middle East : Policy and Administrative Approaches
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  • Introduction -- Contents -- Part I: Analysis of Terrorism in the Middle East -- Chapter 1: Terrorism in the Middle East: Policy and Administrative Approach -- Introduction -- Causes of Upheaval in the Middle East -- Cause 1: Political and Economic Paradigm -- Cause 2: Absence of Viable Form of Expression -- Cause 3: Wars and Foreign Involvements -- Cause 4: Failed States -- Cause 5: Tribalism, Misogyny, Sectarian Violence, and Minority Issues -- Cause 6: Alienation, Identity Crisis, and Clash of Civilizations -- Cause 7: Political Islam and Dogma -- Is Islam Itself a Religion of Violence? -- Is Islam an Intolerant Religion? -- Is Islamic Law (the Sharia) Suited for Modern-Day Public Affairs? -- Is the Islamic Caliphate an Ideal Form of Governance in Today's Society? -- Conclusion -- Immediate Approach -- Intermediate Approach -- Long-Term Strategy -- How to Resolve Issues of Violence in Islam? -- References -- Chapter 2: Monitoring and Disrupting Dark Networks: A Bias Toward the Center and What It Costs Us -- Introduction -- Generic Strategies -- Network Centric Counterterrorism Strategies -- The Case: Syrian Resistance Network -- Implications -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 3: Terrorism Through the Looking Glass -- Introduction: Clarity and Objectivity in Place of 'Smoke and Mirrors' -- Terrorism and Counterterrorism Are Two Sides of the Same Coin -- The Blame Game in 'Terrorism' -- Why Has Conflict, and Terrorism, Intensified in MENA Recently? -- Remorseful Era of Endless War -- How Significant Is the 'Terrorism' Threat? -- Iraq's Inevitable Rise to the Summit -- Need to Address the Disease Not the Symptoms -- Conclusion -- What Is to Be Done? -- References -- Chapter 4: Reasons for Terrorism in the Middle East -- Introduction -- (Neo) Kharijism -- The Characteristics of Kharijites -- Is That Neo Salafism or Neo Kharijism?
  • Neo Khariji Terrorist Organizations: Al-Qaeda, Al-Nusra, and ISIS -- Political, Economic, and Educational Circumstances in the Middle East -- Authoritarian Regimes in the Middle East -- Arab-Israel Conflict in the Region -- Poverty in the Middle East -- Ignorance in the Middle East -- Radicalization in the Middle East and New Collective Identity -- Feel of Injustice -- Responsibility for Injustice -- Consciousness Creates Collective Identity -- Collective Identity Regarding Joining ISIS in Iraq and Syria -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 5: Impact of Islamophobia and Human Rights: The Radicalization of Muslim Communities -- Introduction -- Violation of Human Rights and Terrorism -- Hate Crimes -- Counterterrorism and Human Rights -- Islamophobia in European Countries -- United Kingdom -- Mistakes in Counterterrorism Policy -- France -- The Netherlands -- Denmark -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 6: How Do Terrorist Organizations Use Information Technologies? Understanding Cyberterrorism -- Literature Review -- Justification of the Violence -- Dissemination of Terrorist Content -- Websites of the Terrorist Organizations -- Information Provision and Information Gathering -- Financing -- Networking -- Recruitment -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 7: Root Causes of Conflict and Terrorism in the Middle East -- Introduction -- Legacy of Colonial Rule and the Independence Movements -- Palestinian/Arab-Israeli Conflict -- Bad Governance and Corrupt Regimes -- Failure of Economic Development and Socioeconomic Deprivation -- Radicalism and Theological Justifications -- State Terrorism -- Foreign Policy of the Western Countries -- Ethnic and Sectarian Conflict -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 8: Conflict Resolution and Peace in the Middle East: Prospects and Challenges -- Introduction -- The Course of the Conflict after the Six-Day War
  • Propositions of Multiculturalism -- Prospects for Conflict Resolution -- Challenges for States and Civil Society -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 9: The Changing Nature of Global Arm Conflict -- Introduction -- The Changing Nature of War -- New Arm Conflict -- Conclusion -- References -- Part II: Case Studies -- Chapter 10: The Interplay Between Policy and Politics in Combatting Terrorism: The Case of Lebanon (2011-2015) -- Introduction -- Defining Terrorism: International and Domestic -- Counterterrorism: Theoretical Perspectives and Best Practices -- Terrorism Roots and Counterterrorism Policies in the Middle East -- Setting the Lebanese Context: Terrorism and Counterterrorism -- Opportunities and Obstacles -- Conclusion: Policy Recommendations and Future Studies -- References -- Chapter 11: State-Sponsored Terrorism and Its Effects on Lebanese Policy and Politics -- Introduction -- References -- Chapter 12: Iran and Its Policy Against Terrorism -- Introduction -- The History of Terrorism in Iran -- Various Kinds Terrorism Threats Against Iran -- The Concept of Terrorism in the Laws and Regulations of Iran -- National Security in Iran -- Counter-Terrorism Policies -- References -- Chapter 13: Policy Initiatives That Steer Terrorism: A Case Study of L. Paul Bremer's De-Ba'athification of the Iraqi Army -- Introduction -- Historical Overview -- American Decision-Making and Policy Justification -- Consequences of the War -- Future Decision-Making -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 14: Assessment of Policy and Institutional Approaches to International Terrorism in Uganda -- Understanding the Concept of International Terrorism -- Theoretical Framework for International Terrorism Response in Uganda -- Recent Developments in Operations of Terrorist Networks in East Africa and the Middle East
  • Institutional and Procedural Responses to International Terrorism -- Policy Responses to Terrorism in Uganda: Security and Legal Critique -- Challenges in Policy and Institutional Approaches to Terrorism -- Discussion -- Recommendations -- References -- Chapter 15: Turkey's Struggle with the Kurdish Question: Roots, Evolution, and Changing National, Regional, and International Contexts -- Introduction -- Roots and History of the Kurdish Question in Turkey -- Emergence of the PKK Insurrection -- Turkish Responses Toward the PKK and Their Evolution in Characteristics -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 16: Fighting Terrorism Through Community Policing -- Introduction -- Literature Review -- Community Policing -- The Problem of Terrorism -- Counterterrorism Policies -- Community Policing in Counterterrorism -- Research Methodology -- Case Study -- The Problem of Terrorism in Turkey -- Community Policing in Turkey -- Findings -- Perceptions About the Problem of Terrorism -- Positive Perceptions of Community Policing -- Negative Perceptions About Community Policing -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 17: Money-Laundering Activities of the PKK -- Introduction -- Money Laundering and Terrorism Financing -- Offenses and Methods of Money Laundering -- The PKK and Money Laundering -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 18: Bullets for Ballots: Electoral Violence in Insurgencies -- Introduction -- Understanding the Importance of Elections for the Insurgent -- Increasing Popular Support -- Legitimacy -- Respectability -- Increasing the Resource Pool of the Insurgent -- Increase the Role of the Insurgent's Military Wing -- Election Violence -- Dimensions of Election Violence -- Perpetrators -- Voter-Motivated Conflict -- State-Motivated Conflict -- Rival-motivated Conflict -- Insurgent-Motivated Conflict -- A Combination of those Categories
  • Victims or Targets of Election Violence -- Forms of Election Violence -- Aims and Motives of Election Violence -- Time Periods -- Analyzing Dimensions of Election Violence in the Pre-election Period -- Analyzing Dimensions of Election Violence during the Election Days -- Possible Consequences of Violence in the Pre-Election Period and During the Election Days -- Postponing or Disrupting Elections from Taking Place -- Affecting Voter Turnouts -- Forcing the Candidates to Leave from the Electoral Process -- Influencing Electorates' Political Preferences -- Discussion on Consequences of Violence in the Pre-election and during the Election Days -- Position of the Governing Party on Terrorism -- Fault Factor -- Proximity -- Violence in the Post-Election Period -- Electoral Outcomes -- Discussion on Post-Election Violence -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 19: Is Democracy a Cure for Human Rights Violations? An Analysis of Macro Variables -- Introduction -- Right to Life -- Prohibition of Torture -- Literature Review about the Studies Investigating the Violation of Human Rights -- Data and Study Design -- Measurements -- Human Rights Violations (The Dependent Variable) -- Democracy Score -- Population -- Number of Terrorist Incidents -- Criminal Offences -- Prosperity Index -- Human Development Index -- Findings -- Bivariate Analysis -- Multivariate Analysis -- Discussion and Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 20: Manufacturing Terrorism -- The United States: A Humble Beginning -- Wars and the Transformation of America to a Superpower -- World Hegemony -- American Citizens: Traits and Responses to Policies of a Superpower -- Pax-Americana -- Manufacturing the Islamist Bogyman -- ISIS -- The Muslim Brotherhood -- Libya, Syria, and Iraq -- Turkey -- The Kurds -- Questions Begging Answers -- Conclusion -- References -- Index
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