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The Resource Ecosystem Services - Concept, Methods and Case Studies

Ecosystem Services - Concept, Methods and Case Studies

Ecosystem Services - Concept, Methods and Case Studies
Ecosystem Services - Concept, Methods and Case Studies
Nature provides us with many services seemingly for free: recharged groundwater, fertile soil and plant biomass created by photosynthesis. We human beings draw extensive benefits from these "ecosystem services," or ES - food, water supply, recreation and protection from natural hazards. Major international studies, such as the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, have addressed the enormous role of biodiversity and ecosystems to human well-being, and they draw particular attention to the consequences resulting from the reduction or loss of these services. These very topical issues are being addressed by authors/scientists in a wide variety of disciplines - and their approaches, terminologies and methodological specifics are just as diverse. What, for example, does the efficacy of nature or natural capital mean? Which values of nature are particularly important, how are they distributed in space and time and how can they be assessed and the relevant knowledge promoted? Can all ecosystem services be quantified and even monetarised? What should be done to ensure that the multiple services of nature will be available also in future? This book explains the multifaceted concept of ecosystem services, provides a methodological framework for its analysis and assessment, and discusses case examples, particularly from Germany. It is addressed to scientists and practitioners in the administrative, volunteer and professional spheres, especially those who deal with environment, landscape management and nature conservation and regional and land-use planning. The target group includes experts from the business community, politicians and decision makers, students and all those interested in fundamental ecological, economic, ethical and environmental issues
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Ecosystem Services - Concept, Methods and Case Studies
Ecosystem Services - Concept, Methods and Case Studies
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  • Preface -- Contents -- Contributors -- Chapter-1 -- Ecosystem Services (ES): More than Just a Vogue Term? -- References -- Chapter-2 -- Development and Fundamentals of the ES-Approach -- 2.1 Key Terms -- 2.2 ES in Retrospect -- 2.3 Values and Services of Nature for Humans -- References -- Chapter-3 -- Conceptual Framework -- 3.1 Properties, Potentials and Services of Ecosystems -- 3.1.1 The Cascade Model in the TEEB Study -- 3.1.2 The EPPS Framework -- 3.1.3 The Application of the EPPS Framework-The Example 'Mountain Meadow' -- 3.2 Classification of ES -- 3.2.1 Introduction -- 3.2.2 Provisioning Services -- 3.2.3 Regulation Services -- 3.2.4 Sociocultural Services -- 3.2.5 Additional Classification Aspects -- 3.3 Space and Time Aspects of ES -- 3.3.1 Fundamentals, Control Scheme -- 3.3.2 Case Study: EU-Water Framework Directive (WFD) and ES -- 3.4 Landscape Services -- References -- Chapter-4 -- Ascertainment and Assessment of ES -- 4.1 Indicators and Quantification Approaches -- 4.1.1 Introduction -- 4.1.2 Ecosystem Service Supply and Demand Assessment at the Landscape Scale-the 'Matrix' -- 4.1.3 Conclusions and Outlook -- 4.2 Approaches to the Economic Valuation of Natural Assets -- 4.2.1 Principles of Economic Valuation -- 4.2.2 The Total Economic Value -- 4.2.3 Valuation Methods and Techniques -- 4.2.4 Conclusion -- 4.3 Scenario-Development and Participative Methods -- 4.3.1 Basics and Fields of Application -- 4.3.2 Framework of Scenario Development -- 4.3.3 Participation and the Case Study Görlitz -- 4.4 Complex Analyses, Evaluation and Modelling of ES -- 4.4.1 Background -- 4.4.2 Energy Crop Production-A Complex Problem for Assessing ES -- 4.4.3 Application of Models of InVEST to Assess Ecosystem Services -- 4.5 Communicating ES -- 4.5.1 The Importance of Communication
  • 4.5.2 'Ecosystem Services' as an Umbrella Term for Communicative Intent -- 4.5.3 Government and the Market Instead of Communications? -- 4.5.4 Communications Efforts as an Approach to the Shaping of Environmental Sciences -- References -- Chapter-5 -- Governing Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Provision -- 5.1 Policy Mixes for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecosystem Service Management -- 5.1.1 Why Using a Policy Mix? -- 5.1.2 A Well-Equipped Tool-Box of Policy Instruments -- 5.1.3 Assessing Instruments for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecosystem Service Management in Policy Mixes -- 5.2 Selected Financial Mechanisms: Payments for Ecosystem Services and Ecological Fiscal Transfer -- 5.2.1Payments for Ecosystem Services -- 5.2.2 Ecological Fiscal Transfers -- 5.3 Integrating the Concept of Ecosystem Services into Landscape Planning -- 5.3.1 Linking Ecosystem Services with the Landscape Plan -- 5.3.2 Implementation in Practice-Testing the Example of the Service 'Erosion Protection' -- 5.4 Governance in Nature Conservation -- 5.4.1 Governance and Protection of Biodiversity -- 5.4.2 The Project GEM-CON-BIO -- References -- Chapter-6 -- Land Use, Maintenance and Protection to Ensure ES -- 6.1 Concept for the Selection of Case Studies -- 6.2 Assessment of Selected Services of Agro-Ecosystems -- 6.2.1 Introduction -- 6.2.2 Agri-Environmental Measures: The AEMBAC Methodology -- 6.2.3 Agro-economic Evaluation of Landscape Plans -- 6.2.4 Species-Rich Grassland Services -- 6.3 Economic Benefit Valuation of the Influence of a Forest Conversion Programme on Ecosystem Services in the Northeastern Lowlands of Germany -- 6.3.1 Introduction -- 6.3.2 Raw Wood Production -- 6.3.3 Carbon Sequestration -- 6.3.4 Scenic Beauty and Recreation Values -- 6.3.5 Synopsis and Discussion -- 6.4 Urban Ecosystem Services: Leipzig as a Case Study
  • 6.4.1 Urban Ecosystem Services and Urban Land Use: A Complex Nexus -- 6.4.2 An Example of Local Climate Regulation -- 6.4.3 An Example of Flood Regulation -- 6.4.4 An Example of Carbon Sequestration in the Urban Area-Reducing the Ecological Backpack of the City? -- 6.4.5 An Example of the Recreational and Nature Experience -- 6.5 Cultural Landscapes and their Ecosystem Services -- 6.5.1 The Example of Orchard Meadows in the Swabian Alb Biosphere Reserve -- 6.5.2 Calculation of Landscape Management Measures and Costs -- 6.6 Specific Nature Protection and Development Strategies -- 6.6.1 Nature Conservation and Ecosystem Services -- 6.6.2 Soil and Water Protection -- 6.6.3 Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services-The Case of Wetland Restoration Along the German Elbe River -- 6.6.4 Peatland Use in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany: Monetarization of the Ecosystem Service Climate Protection -- 6.7 Systematisation of the Case Studies -- References -- Chapter-7 -- Recommendations and Outlook -- 7.1 Work Steps for the Analysis and Evaluation of ES -- 7.2 Future Challenges Regarding ES -- References -- Index
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