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The Resource Early Childhood Education Policies in Asia Pacific : Advances in Theory and Practice

Early Childhood Education Policies in Asia Pacific : Advances in Theory and Practice

Early Childhood Education Policies in Asia Pacific : Advances in Theory and Practice
Early Childhood Education Policies in Asia Pacific
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Advances in Theory and Practice
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Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects Ser.
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Early Childhood Education Policies in Asia Pacific : Advances in Theory and Practice
Early Childhood Education Policies in Asia Pacific : Advances in Theory and Practice
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  • Series Editors' Introduction -- Preface: From 'Sound Bites' to Sound Solutions: Advancing the Policies for Better Early Childhood Education in Asia Pacific -- Introduction -- The '3A2S' Framework -- About This Book -- References -- Contents -- Contributors -- Chapter 1: Early Childhood Education Policies in Australia -- Overall Context -- Early Childhood Education -- National Partnership Agreement -- National Quality Framework (NQF) -- Australian Children's Education and Care Quality Authority (ACECQA) -- Accessibility -- Affordability -- Child Care Benefit (CCB) -- Child Care Rebate (CCR) -- Additional Payments -- Preschool Funding and Delivery Models -- Accountability -- Quality into the Future -- Staff-to-Child Ratios -- Staff Qualifications -- Sustainability -- Future Options for a Sustainable ECE System -- Social Justice -- Inequality, Disadvantage, and Indicators -- Conclusion -- Appendix -- Australian State and Territory Regulatory Authorities -- References -- Chapter 2: A Critical Analysis of the Changing Landscape of Early Childhood Education in Mainland China: History, Policies, Progress, and Future Development -- Introduction -- History of ECE Policies in Mainland China (1978-2014) -- A Critical Analysis of ECE Policies in Mainland China -- Accessibility -- Affordability of ECE in China -- Accountability of ECE in China -- Sustainability in ECE Policies -- Social Justice in ECE Policies -- Conclusion -- Accessibility: Increasing Supply of Kindergartens but Still Not Adequate Enough -- Affordability: Increasing Financial Support but Still Not Sufficient Enough -- Accountability: Increasing Governmental Involvement but Lacking in Objective Assurance Mechanisms -- Sustainability: Policies in Action -- Social Justice: Supporting Young Children from Disadvantaged Backgrounds -- Implications for Future ECE Development
  • Appendix: Full Names of Terms and Their Acronyms -- References -- Chapter 3: Achieving a Balance Between Affordability, Accessibility, Accountability, Sustainability and Social Justice: The Early Childhood Education Policies in Hong Kong -- Introduction -- About the Education System -- About the Sector of Early Childhood Education -- Accessibility to Quality Kindergarten Programmes -- The Balance Between Supply and Demand -- Every Eligible Child Has Access to Kindergarten -- Increasing the Quantity of Teachers -- Affordability: No Child Deprived of ECE Due to Poverty -- Kindergarten and Child Care Centre Fee Remission Scheme -- Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme -- Accountability: Promoting Self-Evaluation and School Improvement -- Establishing Self-Evaluation and School Improvement Mechanism -- Promoting Both Quality and Quantity of Teachers -- Sustainability: Towards Free/Quality Kindergarten Education -- Social Justice: Caring All Kids Without Any Discrimination -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 4: Japanese ECE: Four Abilities (Accessibility, Affordability, Accountability, and Sustainability) that Result in Social Justice -- Introduction -- Kindergarten -- Nursery School -- Certified Child Gardens -- Accessibility: Comparing Both Public and Private Early Childhood Settings and How They Are Accessible to Children and Families -- Affordability -- Average Japanese Incomes -- Governmental Financial Support -- Child Allowance -- Accountability -- Teacher Qualifications -- Sustainability: How to Sustain Accessibility, Affordability, and Accountability of ECE -- Social Justice -- Conclusion -- Appendix: List of Acronyms -- References -- Chapter 5: Early Childhood Education Policies in Korea: Advances in Theory and Practice -- Introduction -- History of Early Childhood Education Policies in Korea -- Overall Context: The ECEC System in Korea
  • Accessibility of ECEC in Korea -- Accessibility of Kindergartens -- Number of Kindergartens -- Number of Kindergarten Teachers -- Class Size of Kindergartens -- Enrolment Rates of Kindergartens -- Accessibility of Childcare -- Number of Childcare Centers -- Number of Childcare Center Teachers -- Enrolment Rates of Childcare Centers -- Affordability of ECEC in Korea -- Accountability of ECEC in Korea -- The Kindergarten Evaluation System (KES) -- Childcare Center Accreditation System (CCAS) -- Information Disclosure System -- Sustainability of ECEC in Korea -- Social Justice in ECEC in Korea -- Lack of Integrated Infrastructure -- Quality Gaps Within the ECEC Sector -- Gaps in Teacher Quality -- Discussion: What Is Next? -- Appendix -- List of Acronyms -- References -- Chapter 6: A Postcolonial Analysis of the Free Kindergarten Education Policy in Macau -- Introduction -- A Brief Account of the Local Education System -- Advantages of the Non-interventionist Approach -- Schooling in Macau in the Postcolonial Era -- Accessibility of Macau's Free Education Policy -- Affordability of Macau's Free Education Policy -- Accountability of Macau's Free Education Policy -- Sustainability of Macau's Free Education Policy -- Social Justice of Macau's Free Education Policy -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 7: Early Childhood Development Policies in Nepal: Achievements, Learning, and Implications -- Introduction -- Understanding the Concept of ECD -- History of Education and Evolution of ECDC in Nepal -- Analysis of Policies and Legislative Framework -- Implementation Strategies and Institutional Arrangements -- Financing -- Understanding the Accessibility of ECD Policies in Nepal -- Understanding the Affordability of ECD Policies in Nepal -- Understanding the Accountability of ECD Policies in Nepal -- Understanding the Sustainability of ECD Policies in Nepal
  • Understanding the Social Justice of ECD Policies in Nepal -- Conclusion -- Appendix: Full Names of the Terms and Their Acronyms -- References -- Chapter 8: A Story of Changing State Priorities: Early Childhood Care and Education Policies in Aotearoa New Zealand -- The Aotearoa New Zealand Context -- New Zealand Context -- The Education Context -- The Early Childhood Education Sector -- Categories of Early Childhood Education Services -- A Brief History -- The Role of Government Departments -- NZ Teachers Council and Its Successor, the Education Council of Aotearoa New Zealand -- The Regulatory Framework for Early Childhood Education -- Teaching and Learning: Policy and Resources -- Te Whāriki, Early Childhood Curriculum (Ministry of Education 1996) -- Kei Tua o te Pae, Assessment for Learning: Early Childhood Exemplars -- Participation -- Supply and Demand Context -- Enrolment/Attendance Trends -- Time Children Spend in ECES -- Qualified Staff -- Affordability -- Funding Policy Framework -- Increasing Focus on Vulnerability -- State Investment in ECCE -- Accountability -- Ministry of Education Accountability -- Accountability for Initial Teacher Education Providers -- Accountability for Early Childhood Education Services -- Ministry of Education Systems -- Education Review Office Systems -- Professional Accountability for Individual Teachers -- Sustainability of the Policy Framework -- Maintaining an Integrated System -- Links to the Schooling Curriculum -- Social Justice -- Human Rights -- Codes of Ethics -- Accommodating Diversity -- Treaty Relationships -- Reducing Poverty -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 9: Understanding the Early Childhood Education Policies in Pacific Islands -- Overall Context -- Early Childhood Care and Education -- Methodology -- Accessibility -- Affordability -- Accountability: Policy, Legislation, and Governance
  • Accountability -- Human Resources -- Recruitment/Retention -- Teacher Professionalism -- Curriculum, Assessment, and Environment (CAE) Elements -- Curriculum -- Child Assessment -- Environment -- Sustainability: Performance Monitoring and Assessment -- Social Justice: Family and Community Partnerships -- Communications -- Community Ownership -- Parent-Teacher Associations -- School/Community-Based Management -- Conclusion -- Appendices -- Appendix A: References - Country Ministry of Education Representatives -- Appendix B: Baseline Questionnaire -- PRC4ECCE Country Members' ECCE Subsector Questionnaire -- Appendix C: List of Acronyms -- References -- Chapter 10: The ECE Landscape Being Shaped by Cosmopolitanism: An Examination and Evaluation of Policies in Singapore -- Introduction -- Context of Preschool Education Policy and Practice -- Overview of the Preschool Education System in Singapore -- Key Reforms of Preschool Education in Recent Years -- Accessibility -- Capacity of Preschool Services -- Participation of Preschool Education -- Affordability -- Early Childhood Development Agency (ECDA) -- Basic and Additional Infant and Child Care Subsidy -- Kindergarten Financial Assistance Scheme (KiFAS) -- Anchor Operator (AOP) Scheme -- Public Kindergartens -- Accountability -- Assurance and Accreditation for Quality Preschools -- Catalyst for Quality Pedagogy -- Motivation for Quality Preschool Teachers -- Innovation for Quality Curriculum -- Sustainability -- Sustain Fiscal Input -- Sustain Capacity of Preschool Sector -- Sustain Provision of Preschool Education Policies -- Sustain Innovation of Pedagogy -- Social Justice -- Conclusion -- Appendix -- List of Acronyms -- References -- Chapter 11: An Examination and Evaluation of Postmillennial Early Childhood Education Policies in Taiwan -- Accessibility: Making ECE Available to All Qualified Children
  • Affordability: Increasing Financial Support to Relieve Parental Burden
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