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The Resource Advances in Psychology and Law : Volume 1

Advances in Psychology and Law : Volume 1

Advances in Psychology and Law : Volume 1
Advances in Psychology and Law
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Volume 1
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non fiction
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Advances in Psychology and Law
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Advances in Psychology and Law : Volume 1
Advances in Psychology and Law : Volume 1
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  • Dedication -- Preface -- Contents -- Interrogation and the Minority Suspect: Pathways to True and False Confession -- Basic Processes Affecting Minorities in Interrogation -- Cultural Stereotypes Associating Minorities with Crime -- Minority Awareness of Race-Based Criminality Stereotypes: Metastereotypes and the Impact of Stereotype Threat -- Communication and English as a Second Language -- Race, Culture of Origin, and Immigration Status: Power Dynamics and Perceptions of Legal Rights, Law Enforcement, and the Justice System -- Associations Between Race and Established Risk Factors for Confession -- Interrogation Processes and Minority Risk -- Minorities Under Suspicion: Targeting Suspects for Questioning -- Livin' in the Hood: Demographics and Effects of High Crime Surroundings -- Fuel for Suspicion: The Role of Criminal Stereotypes in Targeting Suspects -- Assessment of Deception: The Roles of Culture and Stereotype Threat -- Confirmation Biases and the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy in Assessments of Deception -- Submitting to Interrogation: Barriers to Understanding, Believing in, and Exerting One's Right to Refuse -- The Simple Power of Police Requests -- Understanding and Misunderstanding Miranda -- Minority Understanding of Miranda Rights -- Minority Expectations: Are These Rights Real, and What Will Happen If I Try to Invoke Them? -- The Nature of Interrogation: Sources of Resistance and Vulnerability -- Minorities and Coercion -- Minorities, Distress, and Distress Tolerance -- Confession as Compliance -- The Persuasive Force of the Interrogation and the Mistaken Conclusion That Confession Is Best -- Judging the Confession: Is It Voluntary and True? -- Conclusions -- References -- A Comprehensive Evaluation of Showups -- Advantages and Disadvantages of Showups -- Showups Versus Lineups -- Meta-analysis -- Updated Meta-analysis
  • ROC Analysis -- Confidence -- Point-Biserial Correlation -- Confidence Calibration -- Conclusions -- References -- The Weapon Focus Effect for Person Identifications and Descriptions: A Meta-analysis -- The Weapon Focus Effect: A Meta-analysis -- Theoretical Explanations -- Emotional Stress and Arousal -- Attentional Focus While Watching a Crime -- Unusualness of an Object or Weapon -- Hypotheses -- Moderator Variables -- Method -- Search Strategies Used -- Inclusion Criteria -- Coding of the Studies -- Effect Sizes -- Outlier Analyses -- Fixed and Random Effects Models -- Moderator Analyses -- Results for the Weapon Focus Effect -- Lineup Identifications -- Correct Decisions -- Correct Identifications in Target-Present Lineups -- False Identifications in Target-Absent Lineups -- Eyewitness Recall -- Correct Naming of Weapon or Objects -- Description of the Perpetrator -- Object Descriptions -- Results for the Unusualness Effect -- Method -- Study Characteristics -- Correct Identification of the Target in Target-Present Lineups -- Description Accuracy of Targets -- Discussion -- Robustness of the Weapon Focus Effect -- Theoretical Implications -- Practical Implications -- Publication Bias -- Methodological Implications -- Conclusion -- References -- "It will be your duty{u2026}:" The Psychology of Criminal Jury Instructions -- Jurors' General Comprehension of Jury Instructions -- The Legal Perspective -- The Psychological Perspective -- Addressing the Issues -- Death Penalty Instructions -- The Legal Perspective -- The Psychological Perspective -- Addressing the Issue -- Jury Instructions on Eyewitness Testimony -- The Legal Perspective -- The Psychological Perspective -- Addressing the Issues -- Curative Instructions -- The Legal Perspective -- The Psychological Perspective -- Addressing the Issues -- Jury Instructions on Joinder -- The Legal Perspective
  • The Psychological Perspective -- Addressing the Issue -- The Allen (Dynamite) Charge -- The Legal Perspective -- The Psychological Perspective -- Addressing the Issue -- Jury Instructions on Jury Nullification -- The Legal Perspective -- The Psychological Perspective -- Addressing the Issue -- Future Directions -- Conclusions -- References -- Structured Risk Assessment and Legal Decision-Making -- Fact Finders' Consumption of Structured Risk Estimates -- Relative Impact of Clinical Predictions Versus Structured Risk Estimates -- Heuristics and Numeracy -- Motivated Reasoning -- Legal Thresholds of Risk -- Making Legal Decisions Mechanically with Decision Theory -- A Conceptual Introduction to Decision Theory -- Decision Theory and the Law: A Contentious History -- Specifying the Ingredients of Mechanical Decisions -- Mechanical Decision-Making -- Conclusion -- References -- Children's Participation in Legal Proceedings: Stress, Coping, and Consequences -- Child Participants in Legal Cases -- Characteristics of a Legal Case That Are Most Distressing to Children -- Children's Coping with Legal Involvement -- Future Directions -- Conclusions -- References -- Sex Offender Policy and Prevention -- Sex Offender Myths and Realities -- The Myth of the Chronic Recidivist -- The Myth of Stranger Danger -- The Myth of Pervasive Pedophilia -- The Myth of Untreatability -- The Myth of Homogeneity -- Sex Offender Policies -- Registration and Community Notification -- Residence Restrictions -- Electronic and GPS Monitoring -- Civil Commitment -- Incapacitation -- Future Directions -- Primary Prevention -- Reform of Current Laws -- Conclusion -- References -- The Psychology of Tort Law -- Introduction -- Causation Issues in Tort -- Comparative Negligence -- Tort Damages -- Future Research -- References -- Index
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